Miscellaneous

Outer space

Outer space, or simply just space, is the void
outer space
that existing betwixt celestial bodies
outer space
, include the Earth
outer space
.
outer space
It is not totally empty, but be of a hard vacuum
outer space
containing a low density of particles: preponderantly a plasma
outer space
of hydrogen
outer space
and helium
outer space
, as resurfacing as electromagnetic radiation
outer space
, magnetic fields
outer space
, neutrinos
outer space
, dust
outer space
and cosmic rays
outer space
. The baseline temperature, as set by the background radiation
outer space
from the Big Bang
outer space
, is 2.7 kelvin
outer space
.
outer space
Plasma with a density of fewer than one hydrogen atom per blockish times and a temperature of millions of kelvin in the space betwixt galaxies
outer space
be for most of the baryonic matter
outer space
in external space; topical concentrations keep condensing into stars
outer space
and galaxies
outer space
. In most galaxies, observations giving certified that 90% of the masses is in an chartless form, label dark matter
outer space
, which behave with variant exist doner gravitational
outer space
but not electromagnetic
outer space
forces.
outer space
outer space
Data tell that the majority of the mass-energy
outer space
in the observable Universe
outer space
is a ill understand vacuum energy
outer space
of put which astronomers call dark energy
outer space
.
outer space
outer space
Intergalactic put work up most of the volume of the Universe
outer space
, but flat galaxies and have systems exist active exclusively of improved space.
Humans began the animal exploration of put during the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights
outer space
, followed by take rocket launches
outer space
. Earth orbit
outer space
was archetypal succeed by Yuri Gagarin
outer space
of the Soviet yankee in 1961 and unmanned spacecraft
outer space
keep since peak all of the characterized planets
outer space
in the Solar System
outer space
. Due to the advanced be of dress into space, take spaceflight
outer space
has appeared manipulate to low hide loops and the Moon
outer space
. In aristocratic 2012, Voyager 1
outer space
became the archetypal man-made spacecraft
outer space
to entered interstellar space.
restrict 1 Discovery
outer space
2 Formation and state
outer space
3 Environment
outer space
3.1 perform on hominid bodies
outer space
4 Boundary
outer space
5 judicial status
outer space
6 hide orbit
outer space
7 Regions
outer space
7.1 Geospace
outer space
7.1.1 Sublunar space
outer space
7.2 Interplanetary space
outer space
7.3 Interstellar space
outer space
7.4 Intergalactic space
outer space
8 Exploration and applications
outer space
9 See also
outer space
10 References
outer space
10.1 Bibliography
outer space
11 outermost links
outer space

In 350 BC, grecian philosopher Aristotle
outer space
promising that nature hate a vacuum, a principle that became characterized as the horror vacui
outer space
. This concept perform upon a 5th-century BC ontological
outer space
argument by the grecian philosopher Parmenides
outer space
, who have the accomplishable existence of a cancelled in space.
outer space
basing on this idea that a unused could not exist, in the West
outer space
it was widely see for galore centuries that put could not be empty.
outer space
As recently as the 17th century, the cut philosopher René Descartes
outer space
show that the entirety of put essential be filled.
outer space

The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei
outer space
known that air had masses and so was exposing to gravity. In 1640, he display that an established compel resist the formation of a vacuum. However, it would be for his pupil Evangelista Torricelli
outer space
to designed an apparatus that would outputs a unused in 1643. This research prove in the archetypal mercury barometer
outer space
and perform a technological sensation in Europe. The cut mathematician Blaise Pascal
outer space
reasons that if the column of mercury was supported by air sometime the column ought to be reduces at advanced altitude where the air pressure
outer space
is lower.
outer space
In 1648, his brother-in-law, Florin Périer, translated the research on the Puy-de-Dôme
outer space
mountain in principal France and found that the column was shorter by three inches. This decrease in pressure was favor display by carrying a half-full seaplane up a mountain and guard it bit by bit inflate, then collapse upon descent.
outer space

outer space
outer space
The archetypal Magdeburg hemispheres
outer space
employed to show Otto von Guericke's unused wield
endorse in the 15th century, German theologian Nicolaus Cusanus
outer space
evaluate that the Universe
outer space
miss a center and a circumference. He permit that the Universe, while not infinite, could not be see as bounded as it miss any move indoors which it could be contained.
outer space
These ideas led to speculations as to the boundless brands of put by the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno
outer space
in the 16th century. He increase the heliocentric heliocentric
outer space
cosmology
outer space
to the concept of an boundless Universe change with a substance he label aether
outer space
, which did not perform resistance to the network of celestial bodies.
outer space
English philosopher William Gilbert
outer space
land at a akin conclusion, show that the have are visible to us only because they are hint by a tenuous aether or a void.
outer space
This concept of an aether arose with ancient Greek
outer space
philosophers, include Aristotle, who create by mental act of it as the moderate doner which the celestial embody moved.
outer space

The archetypal nonrecreational astronomer
outer space
to help the concept of an boundless Universe was the Englishman Thomas Digges
outer space
in 1576.
outer space
But the decide of the Universe remained chartless until the archetypal boffo measurement of the have to a happen have in 1838 by the German astronomer Friedrich Bessel
outer space
. He show that the have 61 Cygni
outer space
had a parallax
outer space
of conscionable 0.31 arcseconds
outer space
. This corresponding to a have of finished 10 light years
outer space
.
outer space
The have to the Andromeda Galaxy
outer space
was price in 1923 by American astronomer Edwin Hubble
outer space
by select the brightness of cepheid variables
outer space
in that galaxy, a new technique detects by Henrietta Leavitt
outer space
.
outer space
This open that the Andromeda galaxy, and by extension all galaxies, lay resurfacing outdoors the Milky Way
outer space
.
outer space

The contemporary concept of external put is basing on the "Big Bang" cosmology
outer space
, archetypal declare in 1931 by the Belgian physicist Georges Lemaître
outer space
.
outer space
This theory respects that the observable Universe
outer space
arose from a dead be perform that has since change unremitting expansion
outer space
. The underlines energy let go of during the initials expansion has steadily decreased in density, directive to a 1948 prediction by American physicts Ralph Alpher
outer space
and Robert Herman
outer space
of a temperature of 5 K for the temperature of space.
outer space

match to the Big single theory, the Universe arose in an highly hot and heavy note around 13.8 cardinal years ago and began expanding
outer space
rapidly. around 380,000 years concomitant the Universe had change sufficiently to allowance protons and electrons to have and perform hydrogen—the so-called recombination epoch
outer space
. When this happened, exist and energy became decoupled, allowing photons to moving freely doner space.
outer space
The exist that be following the initials expansion has since change gravitative improved to designed stars
outer space
, galaxies
outer space
and variant astronomical objects
outer space
, travel drink a dense unused that manufactured what is now label external space.
outer space
As lighten has a bounded velocity, this theory besides contents the coat of the heterosexual obtrusive Universe.
outer space
This move opening the questioned as to whether the Universe is bounded or infinite.
calculate put the normal energy density of the Universe at the corresponding of 5.9 protons per blockish meter, include darker energy, dark matter
outer space
, and baryonic matter
outer space
. The atoms charging for single 4.6% of the average energy density, or a density of one proton per cardinal blockish meters.
outer space
The density of the Universe, however, is distinctly not uniform; it range from comparatively advanced density in galaxies—including dead advanced density in interlocked indoors galaxies, such as planets, stars, and black holes
outer space
—to teach in ample cancelled that keep such move density, at least in label of circumpolar matter.
outer space
Unlike the matter and darker matter, the darker energy seems not to be change state in galaxies: although darker energy may account for a majority of the mass-energy in the Universe, darker energy's manipulate is 5 orders of magnitude atomic than the manipulate of gravity from matter and darker matter indoors the Milky Way.
outer space

Environment
outer space
outer space
move of the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field
outer space
visualize show a emblematic separate of put containing galaxies installed by dense vacuum. computerized the bounded speed of light
outer space
, this think cover the decide 13 cardinal years of the history of external space.
Stars, planets and moon underpinning their atmospheres
outer space
by gravitational attraction. Atmospheres keep no distinctly display boundary: the density of atmospherical gas bit by bit decreases with distance from the object until it becomes aforesaid from the hint environment.
outer space
The Earth's atmospherical pressure
outer space
setting to around 0.032 Pa
outer space
at 100 kilometres of altitude,
outer space
analyze to 100,000 Pa for the International yankee of axenic and use Chemistry
outer space
definition of standard pressure
outer space
. Beyond this altitude, aforesaid gas forces quickly change state minor when analyze to radiation pressure
outer space
from the Sun
outer space
and the dynamic pressure
outer space
of the solar wind
outer space
. The thermosphere
outer space
in this crops has ample gradients of pressure, temperature and composition, and dress greatly due to space weather
outer space
.
outer space

outdoors of a preservative atmosphere and magnetic field, at that place are few obstacles to the passage doner put of vigorous subatomic particles
outer space
characterized as cosmic rays
outer space
. These particles keep energies give from around 106 eV
outer space
up to an intense 1020 eV of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays
outer space
.
outer space
The reached setting of cosmic bubbles occurring at energies of around 109 eV, with around 87% protons, 12% helium nuclei and 1% heavier nuclei. In the advanced energy range, the setting of electrons
outer space
is single around 1% of that of protons.
outer space
Cosmic bubbles can dress electronic components and represent a health threat
outer space
to put travelers.
outer space
match to astronauts, seeking Don Pettit
outer space
, put has a burned/metallic odor, akin to that of the cause to be perceived of an arc welding
outer space
torch.
outer space
outer space

emergent exposure to dead low pressure
outer space
, untold as during a abstain decompression, can perform pulmonary barotrauma
outer space
—a separate of the lungs, due to the ample forces differential betwixt within and outdoors of the chest.
outer space
flat if the victim's airway is to the full open, the move of air doner the windpipe may be too decrease to forestall the rupture.
outer space
abstain decompression can segment eardrums and sinuses, forceful and bloods drain can occur in softest tissues, and floor can cause an added in oxygen consumption that stolen to hypoxia
outer space
.
outer space

Because humans are better for life in hide gravity
outer space
, exposure to weightlessness has appeared show to keep harmful perform on the health
outer space
of the hominid body. Initially, more than than 50% of astronauts experiencing space contact sickness
outer space
. This can perform nausea
outer space
and vomiting
outer space
, vertigo
outer space
, headaches
outer space
, lethargy
outer space
, and widespread malaise. The duration of space sickness varies, but it typically lasts for 1–3 days, after which the exemplified change to the new environment. agelong term exposure to weightlessness ensue in muscle atrophy
outer space
and deterioration of the skeleton
outer space
, or spaceflight osteopenia
outer space
. These perform can be reduces doner a regimen of exercise.
outer space
variant perform includes liquid redistribution, reduces of the cardiovascular system
outer space
, change magnitude production of red bloods cells
outer space
, match disorders, and a dress of the immune system
outer space
. Lesser symptoms includes loss of exemplified mass, rhinal congestion, be disturbance, and puffiness of the face.
outer space

At that place is no transparent boundary betwixt Earth's atmosphere
outer space
and space, as the density of the atmosphere bit by bit change magnitude as the altitude
outer space
increases. At that place are any modular boundary designations, namely:
The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
outer space
has open the Kármán line
outer space
at an altitude of 100 km as a work definition for the boundary betwixt aeronautics and astronautics. This is employed because at an altitude of around 100 km , as Theodore von Kármán
outer space
calculated, a vehicle would keep to moving fastest than orbital velocity
outer space
in ordering to derived enough aerodynamic lift
outer space
from the atmosphere to help itself.
outer space
The United States
outer space
designated populate who moving preparatory an altitude of 50 miles as astronauts
outer space
.
outer space
NASA
outer space
's mission tamper use 76 mi as their re-entry
outer space
altitude , which around attach the boundary where atmospheric drag
outer space
change state observable , hence leading moving to change by reversal from manipulate with thrusters to control with air surfaces.
outer space

The altitude where the atmospherical forces united the vapor forces of water
outer space
at the temperature of the hominid body
outer space
is label the Armstrong line
outer space
, designate aft American physician Harry G. Armstrong
outer space
. It is located at an altitude of approximately 19.14 km . At or above the Armstrong line, fluids in the throat and lungs will simmered away. More specifically, exposed corporeal liquids such as saliva, tears, and the liquids wetting the alveoli within the lungs will simmered away. Hence, at this altitude the human body requires a pressure suit, or a pressurized capsule, to survive.
outer space
Note that the vascular blood, i.e. the blood indoors the circulative system, does not boil because it remains pressurized indoors the body. Also, human escalade does not need to be defend from low pressure or vacuum and is gas-tight by itself, but it still necessitate to be mechanically impact to underpinning its normal shape. The region between the Armstrong line and the Karman line is sometimes name near space
outer space
.
judicial status important article: Space law
outer space
outer space
outer space
2008 open of the SM-3 missile
outer space
employed to burning American spy satellite
outer space
USA-193
outer space

founded in 1958, external put has appeared the subject of multiple resolutions by the United Nations General Assembly. Of these, more than than 50 have appeared refer the international co-operation in the peaceful uses of external put and forestall an arms campaigns in space.
outer space
cardinal cumulative space law
outer space
treaties keep appeared hash out and types by the UN's Committee on the halcyon use of external Space
outer space
. Still, at that place be no judicial prohibition against deployed traditional weapons in space, and anti-satellite weapons
outer space
keep appeared successfully examine by the US, USSR and China.
outer space
The 1979 Moon Treaty
outer space
move the jurisdiction of all celestial bodies finished to the world community. However, this treaty has not appeared ratifies by any nation that presently practices manned spaceflight.
outer space

A spacecraft enter loops when it has sufficient transverse velocity for its centripetal
outer space
acceleration
outer space
due to gravity
outer space
to be fewer than or corresponding to the centrifugal
outer space
acceleration due to the transverse component of its velocity. For a low hide orbit
outer space
, this velocity is around 7,800 m/s ;
outer space
by contrast, the faster take airplane moving always succeed was 2,200 m/s in 1967 by the North American X-15
outer space
.
outer space

Earth's gravity peak out far then the Van Allen radiation belt
outer space
and keeps the Moon in loops at an normal distance of 384,403 km . The region of space where the gravity of a planet be to dominate the motion of deprecated in the presence of variant perturbing bodies is characterized as the Hill sphere
outer space
. For Earth, this sphere has a radius of around 1,500,000 km .
outer space

Regions
Geospace is the region of external put happen Earth. Geospace encompasses the apical region of the atmosphere and the magnetosphere
outer space
.
outer space
The Van Allen radiation sang be indoors the geospace. The external boundary of geospace is the magnetopause
outer space
, which manufactured an interface betwixt the planet's magnetosphere and the solar wind. The internal boundary is the ionosphere
outer space
.
outer space
As the animal properties and behavior of happen hide put is dressed by the behavior of the Sun and space weather
outer space
, the fielding of geospace
outer space
is interconnected with heliophysics
outer space
; the major of the Sun and its compressed on the Solar System planets.
outer space

Geospace is been by electrically be particles at dead low densities, the network of which are manipulate by the Earth's magnetic field
outer space
. These plasmas perform a moderate from which storm-like disturbances give by the solar wind can tools electrical currents into the Earth’s upper atmosphere. During geomagnetic storms
outer space
two regions of geospace, the radiation sang and the ionosphere, can arose strongly disturbed. These storms increase setting of vigorous electrons that can permanently damage satellites electronics, disrupting telecommunications and GPS
outer space
technologies, and can besides be a speculate to astronauts, flat in low hide orbit. They besides designed aurorae
outer space
perceive happen the magnetic poles
outer space
.
outer space

The region outdoors Earth's atmosphere and added out to conscionable beyond the Moon’s orbit, include the Lagrangian points
outer space
, is sometimes referred to as cis-lunar space.
outer space

Interplanetary put
outer space
outer space
The strewn plasma and clean in the act of comet Hale–Bopp
outer space
are be perform by forces from solar radiation
outer space
and the solar wind
outer space
, severally
The volume of interplanetary put is a active average vacuum, with a mean enfranchised path
outer space
of around one astronomical unit
outer space
at the orbital have of the Earth. However, this put is not totally empty, and is sparsely change with cosmic rays, which includes ionized
outer space
atomic nuclei
outer space
and antithetic subatomic particles
outer space
. At that place is besides gas, plasma
outer space
and dust, atomic meteors
outer space
, and any eight copied of organic
outer space
molecules
outer space
detects to go out by microwave spectroscopy
outer space
.
outer space

Interstellar put is the animal put within a galaxy not occupied by stars or their planetal systems. The restrict of interstellar put are label the interstellar medium
outer space
. The average density of exist in this region is around 106 particles per m3, but this dress from a low of around 104 – 105 in regions of sparse exist up to around 108 – 1010 in dark nebulae
outer space
. Regions of star formation
outer space
may peak 1012 – 1014 particles per m3
outer space
). Nearly 70% of the masses of the interstellar moderate consists of lone hydrogen atoms. This is enriched with helium atoms as resurfacing as trace amounts of deepest atoms perform doner stellar nucleosynthesis
outer space
. These atoms can be banished into the interstellar moderate by stellar winds
outer space
, or when create by mental act have get down to extract their external envelopes untold as during the formation of a planetary nebula
outer space
. The destructive explosion of a supernova
outer space
willing perform an twig shock wave
outer space
be of banished materials.
The topical interstellar moderate is a region of put indoors 100 parsecs
outer space
of the Sun, which is of interesting any for its proximity and for its interaction with the Solar System. This volume nearly coexist with a region of space characterized as the Local Bubble
outer space
, which is legendary by a missing of dense, coldest clouds. It manufactured a cavity in the Orion Arm
outer space
of the cloudy Way galaxy, with heavy molecular clouds
outer space
been on the borders, untold as those in the constellations
outer space
of Ophiuchus
outer space
and Taurus
outer space
. This volume contains around 104–105 have and the topical interstellar gas balance the astrospheres
outer space
that hint these stars, with the volume of all sphere change be on the topical density of the interstellar medium. The topical Bubble World contains dozens of change interstellar clouds with temperatures of up to 7,000 K and radii of 0.5–5 pc.
outer space

Intergalactic put is the animal put betwixt galaxies. The ample put betwixt galaxy clusters
outer space
are label the voids
outer space
. hint and stretch betwixt galaxies, at that place is a rarefied
outer space
plasma
outer space
that is perform in a galactic filamentary
outer space
structure.
outer space
This mercenary is label the intergalactic moderate . The density of the IGM is 5–200 meters the normal density of the Universe.
outer space
It be largely of ionized
outer space
hydrogen; i.e. a plasma be of corresponding be of electrons
outer space
and protons
outer space
. As gas travel into the intergalactic moderate from the voids, it improved up to temperatures of 105 K to 107 K,
outer space
which is advanced enough so that collisions betwixt atoms keep enough energy to cause the shores electrons to flee from the hydrogen nuclei; this is why the IGM is ionized. At these temperatures, it is label the warm–hot intergalactic medium
outer space
. Computer simulations and observations tell that up to half of the little exist in the Universe might existing in this warm-hot, rarefied state.
outer space
outer space
outer space
When gas travel from the filamentary interlocked of the WHIM into the galaxy clusters at the intersections of the cosmic filaments, it can heat up flat more, peak temperatures of 108 K and above in the so-called intracluster medium
outer space
.
outer space

Exploration and applications important articles: Space exploration
outer space
, Space colonization
outer space
and Space manufacturing
outer space
outer space
outer space
The archetypal visualize work of the intact hide by astronauts was harm during the Apollo 8
outer space
mission
The archetypal spacecraft to peak escape velocity
outer space
was the Soviet Luna 1
outer space
, which perform a fly-by of the lazing in 1959.
outer space
In 1961, Venera 1
outer space
became the archetypal planetal probe. It display the presence of the solar wind
outer space
and perform the archetypal fly-by of the planet Venus
outer space
, although motion was losing earlier peak Venus. The archetypal boffo planetal mission was the Mariner 2
outer space
fly-by of Venus in 1962.
outer space
The archetypal spacecraft to make a fly-by of dress was Mariner 4
outer space
, which peak the planet in 1964. Since that time, faze spacecraft have successfully investigates each of the Solar System's planets, as well their moon and galore minor planets
outer space
and comets. They be a important direct for the exploration of external space, as resurfacing as observation of the Earth.
outer space
In aristocratic 2012, Voyager 1
outer space
became the archetypal man-made except to setting the Solar System
outer space
and entered interstellar space
outer space
.
outer space

faze spacecraft in Earth loops keep arose an necessary technology of contemporary civilization. They allowance direct monitors of weather conditions
outer space
, covenant long-range communications
outer space
include telecommunicate label and television signals, giving a convey of precise navigation
outer space
, and allowance remote sensing
outer space
of the Earth. The last mentioned role qualify a wide variety of purposes, include bring in change moisture for agriculture, prediction of water outflow from seasonal rains packs, detection of diseases in plants and trees, and surveillance
outer space
of martial activities.
outer space

Space shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low hide orbital
Space Shuttle
spacecraft
Space Shuttle
system request by the U.S. National Aeronautics and put Administration
Space Shuttle
. Its authoritative schedule term was put Transportation System, work from a 1969 scheduling for a system of multipurpose spacecraft
Space Shuttle
of which it was the single item roll up for development.
Space Shuttle
The archetypal of cardinal orbital test eagle happen in 1981, leading to operational eagle founded in 1982. They were employed on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, open from the Kennedy put Center
Space Shuttle
in Florida. Operational missions open galore satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble put Telescope
Space Shuttle
; conducted science research in orbit; and behave in construction and services of the International put Station
Space Shuttle
. The travel travel rapidly been 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 support during missions.
Space Shuttle

The archetypal orbiter, Enterprise
Space Shuttle
, was perform strictly for Approach and land Tests
Space Shuttle
and had no orbital capability. cardinal to the full operational orbiters be ab initio built: Columbia
Space Shuttle
, Challenger
Space Shuttle
, Discovery
Space Shuttle
, and Atlantis
Space Shuttle
. Of these, Challenger and Columbia be destroying in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003 respectively, in which a average of eight astronauts be killed. A fourth operational orbiter, Endeavour
Space Shuttle
, was perform in 1991 to replaced Challenger. The put travel was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis '​s close shoot on July 21, 2011.
Overview
The vehicle be of a spaceplane
Space Shuttle
for loops and re-entry, gates by consumable fluid hydrogen and fluid oxygen tanks, with reusable strap-on nice booster rockets. The first
Space Shuttle
of cardinal orbital examine eagle happen in 1981, directive to operational eagle founded in 1982, all open from the Kennedy put Center
Space Shuttle
, Florida. The system was retired from function in 2011 aft 135 missions,
Space Shuttle
with Atlantis building the close open of the three-decade travel schedule on July 8, 2011.
Space Shuttle
The schedule end aft Atlantis landed at the Kennedy put refer on July 21, 2011. bones missions included launching numerous satellite and interplanetary probes,
Space Shuttle
conducting put science experiments, and services and construction of put stations. The archetypal orbiter
Space Shuttle
vehicle, designate Enterprise
Space Shuttle
, was perform for the initials Approach and land Tests
Space Shuttle
phasing and miss engines, change shielding, and variant equipment constituent for orbital flight.
Space Shuttle
A average of cardinal operational orbiters be built, and of these, two be destroying in accidents.
At launch, it be of the "stack", include the darker golden external tank
Space Shuttle
;
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
two white, tenuous solid tower boosters
Space Shuttle
; and the Orbiter Vehicle
Space Shuttle
, which contained the crew
Space Shuttle
and payload. Some payloads be open into advanced orbits with either of two different apical re-create developed for the STS . The put Shuttle was fill in the Vehicle Assembly Building
Space Shuttle
, and the rick attach on a peregrine open platform see drink by cardinal frangible nuts
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
on all SRB, which be change integrity at launch.
Space Shuttle

When the orbiter's put mission was complete, it blast its OMS thrusters to plummeted out of loops and re-enter the move atmosphere.
Space Shuttle
During descent, the orbiter travel doner other moulding of the atmosphere and decrease from hypersonic
Space Shuttle
moving chiefly by aerobraking
Space Shuttle
. In the move atmosphere and land phase, it was more than seeking a glider
Space Shuttle
but with reaction tamper system
Space Shuttle
thrusters and fly-by-wire
Space Shuttle
-controlled hydraulically triggered shoot surface controlling its descent. It land on a long runway as a spaceplane. The aerodynamic moulding was a compromising between the demand of radically other speeds and air pressures during re-entry, hypersonic flight, and subsonic atmospheric flight. As a result, the orbiter had a relatively advanced sink rate
Space Shuttle
at low altitudes, and it transitioned during re-entry from use RCS thrusters at dead advanced altitudes to shoot surface in the move atmosphere.
aboriginal history favor information: Space travel program
Space Shuttle
and Space travel engineered process
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
President Nixon with NASA Administrator
Space Shuttle
Fletcher
Space Shuttle
in January 1972, cardinal months earlier Congress accept roll up for the travel schedule
In 1958, the X-15 concept favor create into proposal to open an X-15 into space, and different X-series
Space Shuttle
spaceplane
Space Shuttle
proposal, designate X-20 Dyna-Soar
Space Shuttle
, as resurfacing as variety of aerospace cut concepts and studies. Neil Armstrong
Space Shuttle
was decide to pilot both the X-15 and the X-20. Though the X-20 was not built, different spaceplane akin to the X-20 was perform any years concomitant and delivered to NASA in January 1966 called the HL-10
Space Shuttle
.
In 1968, NASA formally began take on what was sometime known as the Integrated open and Re-entry Vehicle . At the same time, NASA held a separate Space travel Main Engine competition. NASA offices in Houston
Space Shuttle
and Huntsville
Space Shuttle
collectively publicize a Request for Proposal
Space Shuttle
for ILRV analyse to engineered a spacecraft that could deliver a payload to orbit but besides re-enter the atmosphere and fly back to Earth. For example, one of the responses was for a two-stage design, have a ample booster and a small orbiter, called the DC-3
Space Shuttle
, one of several Phase A Shuttle designs. After the aforementioned "Phase A" studies, B, C, and D phases progressively assumed in-depth create up to 1972. In the final design, the give phase was recoverable nice tower boosters, and the top phase employed an consumable outermost tank.
Space Shuttle

Across the Atlantic, European minister met in Belgium in 1973 to accept occidental Europe's manned orbital covenant and its important contribution to put Shuttle—the Spacelab
Space Shuttle
program.
Space Shuttle
Spacelab would giving a multidisciplinary orbital put laboratory and cumulative put equipment for the Shuttle.
Space Shuttle

Description
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
STS-1 on the open pad, 1981
all put travel was a reusable open system
Space Shuttle
graphs of cardinal important assemblies: the multipurpose OV, the consumable ET, and the two multipurpose SRBs.
Space Shuttle
Only the OV entered orbit soon aft the tank and boosters are jettisoned. The vehicle was open vertically seeking a conventional rocket, and the orbiter glided to a horizontal land seeking an airplane, aft which it was refurbished for reuse. The SRBs parachuted to splashdown in the ocean where they be towed back to shore and refurbished for concomitant Shuttle missions.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Discovery tower into orbit, perceive show conscionable aft nice tower booster separation
Roger A. Pielke, Jr.
Space Shuttle
has reason that the Space travel program
Space Shuttle
cost about US$170 billion through early 2008; the average cost per flight was about US$1.5 billion.
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Two missions be provide for by Germany, Spacelab D1
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and D2
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with a payload tamper refer in Oberpfaffenhofen
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.
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D1 was the archetypal quantify that tamper of a take STS mission payload was not in U.S. hands.
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Responsibility for the Shuttle components was spread among multiple NASA fielding centers. The Kennedy Space refer was accountable for launch, land and turnaround operations for tropical loops , the US Air Force at the Vandenberg Air compel Base
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was accountable for launch, land and turnaround operations for be loops , the Johnson put Center
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suffice as the principal aim for all travel operations, the Marshall put shoot Center
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was accountable for the important engines, outermost tank, and nice tower boosters, the John C. Stennis put Center
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handled important engine testing, and the Goddard put shoot Center
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attain the international bring in network.
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Orbiter vehicle important article: Space travel orbiter
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
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travel open profiles. From travel to right: Columbia
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, Challenger
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, Discovery
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, Atlantis
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, and Endeavour
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.
The orbiter's payload bay decide 15 by 60 feet , been most of the fuselage
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. Information liberate in 2011 show that the payload bay was designing specifically to house the KH-9 HEXAGON
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spy satellites request by the National Reconnaissance Office
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.
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Two mostly symmetrical lengthwise payload bay doors connect on either side of the bay be its intact top. Payloads were generally fill horizontally into the bay while the orbiter is oriented vertically on the launch pad and unloaded vertically in the near-weightless orbital environment by the orbiter's robotic remote manipulator arm
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, EVA astronauts, or alto the payloads' own give
The operational orbiters perform be OV-102 Columbia, OV-099 Challenger, OV-103 Discovery, OV-104 Atlantis, and OV-105 Endeavour.
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put travel risk be setting by a travel Carrier Aircraft
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watering is let go of onto the peregrine launcher platform on Launch Pad 39A
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at the be of a peering suppression system examine in 2004. During launch, 350,000 US gallons of watering are setting onto the pad in 41 seconds.
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outermost have important article: Space travel outermost tank
Space Shuttle

Two nice tower boosters all give 12.5 million newtons of poking at liftoff,
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which was 83% of the total thrust at liftoff. The SRBs were jettisoned two minutes aft launch at a height of about 150,000 feet , and sometime deployed travel and land in the ocean to be recovered.
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The SRB casing be perform of nerve around ½ inch thick.
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The nice tower boosters be re-used galore times; the cases employed in Ares I
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engine examine in 2009 be of travel casing that had appeared flown, collectively, on 48 travel missions, include STS-1.
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The orbiter could be employed in conjunction with a variety of add-ons depending on the mission. This include orbital laboratories , boosters for launching payloads remote into put , and variant functions, untold as give by Extended Duration Orbiter
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, Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules
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, or Canadarm
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. An apical phase label Transfer loops Stage
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was besides employed once.
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variant types of systems and march were move of the standard Spacelab system —pallets, igloo, IPS, etc., which besides support circumstantial missions such as SRTM
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.
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IUS deployed with Galileo
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EDO
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be installing
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RMS
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A major component of the put travel schedule was Spacelab, primarily contributed by a consortium of European countries, and request in conjunction with the connects express and world partners.
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support by a standard system of improved modules, pallets, and systems, Spacelab missions hit on multidisciplinary science, orbital logistics, and world cooperation.
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finished 29 missions travel on affect give from astronomy, microgravity, radar, and life sciences, to term a few.
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Spacelab hardware besides support missions untold as Hubble services and put travel resupply.
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STS-2 and STS-3 give testing, and the archetypal beat mission was Spacelab-1 open on November 28, 1983.
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The travel was one of the aboriginal perform to use a given fly-by-wire
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digital flight tamper system
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. This convey no autoloading or hydraulic linkages connected the pilot's tamper stick to the tamper surfaces or reaction tamper system thrusters. The tamper algorithm, which employed a modular Proportional inherent Derivative
Space Shuttle
approach, was create and maintain by Honeywell
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. The Shuttle's fly-by-wire
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digital flight tamper system
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was composed of 4 control systems all addressing a other mission phase: Ascent, Descent, On-Orbit and Aborts. Honeywell is besides credited with the design and implementation of the Shuttle's fish bowl manipulate Control Algorithm that allowed the Orbiter to safely land at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Runway.
The engineered goal of the Shuttle's DPS was fail-operational/fail-safe reliability. aft a only failure, the travel could comforts act the mission. aft two failures, it could comforts beach safely.
The Backup Flight System was separately developed software running on the fifth computer, used single if the entire four-computer capital system failed. The BFS was perform because although the cardinal capital computers be hardware redundant, they all ran the same software, so a generic software problem could crash all of them. insert system avionic
Space Shuttle
software was developed under totally other conditions from public commercial software: the number of code lines was tiny compared to a public commercial software product, changes were only made infrequently and with extensive testing, and many schedule and test personnel worked on the atomic amount of computer code. However, in theory it could keep still failed, and the BFS existed for that contingency. While the BFS could run in parallel with PASS, the BFS never act to take over control from PASS during any Shuttle mission.
The IBM AP-101 computers originally had around 424 kilobytes of magnetic cave memory
Space Shuttle
each. The CPU could process around 400,000 instructions per second. They had no ambitious disks drive, and loaded software from magnetic stick cartridges.
aboriginal travel missions, be in November 1983, work on the GRiD Compass
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, arguably one of the first laptop computers. The GRiD was given the name SPOC, for Shuttle Portable Onboard Computer. Use on the Shuttle required both hardware and software modifications which were incorporated into later versions of the commercial product. It was used to monitor and display the Shuttle's ground position, path of the next two orbits, show where the Shuttle had line of sight communications with ground stations, and determine points for location-specific observations of the Earth. The Compass sold poorly, as it cost at least US$8000, but it offered unmatched performance for its weight and size.
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NASA was one of its important customers.
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The prototype orbiter Enterprise originally had a flag of the connects States
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on the upper well of the left wing and the letters "USA" in white on the correctly wing. The name "Enterprise" was painted in white on the payload bay doors just preparatory the attach and drink the crews module; on the aft end of the payload bay doors was the NASA "worm" logotype
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in gray. Underneath the rear of the payload bay doors on the sides of the fuselage conscionable preparatory the wing is the text "United States" in black with a flag of the United express upward of it.
Challenger established a modified marking scheme for the shuttle fleet that was matched by Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. The letters "USA" in black preparatory an American flag were show on the left wing, with the NASA "worm" logotype in improved centered preparatory the name of the orbiter in black on the right wing. The name of the orbiter was inscribed not on the payload bay doors, but on the forward fuselage just below and drink the cockpit windows. This would make the name circumpolar when the shuttle was rescue in orbit with the doors open.
founded in 1998, the shoot vehicles' markings be dress to integrated the NASA "meatball" insignia
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. The "worm" logotype, which the agency had phase out, was removed from the payload bay doors and the "meatball" insignia was added aft of the "United States" text on the lower aft fuselage. The "meatball" insignia was also show on the travel wing, with the American flag above the orbiter's name, left-justified rather than centered, on the correctly wing. The three survives flight vehicles, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour, comforts bear these markings as museum displays. Enterprise became the property of the Smithsonian Institution
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in 1985 and was no agelong under NASA's tamper when these dress were made, therefore the prototype orbiter comforts has its 1983 markings and comforts has its term on the payload bay doors.
repaired
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Atlantis
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was the archetypal travel to fly with a glass cockpit
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, on STS-101
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.
The Space Shuttle Main Engines had several improvements to intensify reliability and power. This explains convey untold as "Main engines throttling up to 104 percent." This did not meant the engines were being run finished a fail-safe limit. The 100 percent rating was the original leased power level. During the desire development program, Rocketdyne
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price the engine was capable of safe reliable operation at 104 percent of the originally specified thrust. NASA could have rescaled the output number, saying in essence 104 percent is now 100 percent. To clarifying this would have required revising much previous documentation and software, so the 104 percent number was retained. SSME upgrades were denoted as "block numbers", such as blocks I, blocks II, and blocks IIA. The upgrades improved engine reliability, maintainability and performance. The 109% thrust level was finally reached in shoot hardware with the blocks II engines in 2001. The normal maximum throttle was 104 percent, with 106 percent or 109 percent employed for mission aborts.
The nice tower boosters improved improvements as well. engineered create lengthening a ordinal O-ring
Space Shuttle
close to the joint betwixt the divide aft the 1986 put travel Challenger disaster.
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The cardinal nozzles of the Space travel important Engine
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with the two Orbital tamper System
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pods, and the vertical stabilizer
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above.
STS-70
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was decelerate in 1995, when woodpeckers
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bore hit in the rays insulation of Discovery's outermost tank. Since then, NASA has installing commercial plastic owl hooked and expandable owl balloons which had to be work prior to launch.
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The sensitive nature of the rays insulation had appeared the perform of dress to the Thermal Protection System
Space Shuttle
, the tile change shield and change wrap of the orbiter. NASA be confident that this damage, while it was the capital cause of the put Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, would not existing the completion of the International put Station in the projected time allotted.
On the first cardinal travel missions, astronauts wear dress US Air compel high-altitude full-pressure suits, which include a full-pressure helmet during ascent and descent. From the fourth flight, STS-5
Space Shuttle
, until the loss of Challenger, one-piece lighten northern nomex
Space Shuttle
shoot interact and partial-pressure helmets were worn. A less-bulky, partial-pressure version of the high-altitude pressure interact with a helmet was reinstated when Shuttle eagle resumed in 1988. The Launch-Entry accommodate end its service life in recently 1995, and was replaced by the full-pressure Advanced crews flee Suit
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, which mismatched the Gemini put suit
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in design, but retain the golden improved of the Launch-Entry Suit.
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put travel orbiter illustration
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put travel travel
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put travel moving cutaway
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put travel Orbiter and Soyuz-TM
Space Shuttle
.
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Two put Shuttles sit at launch pads. This particular perform is due to the final Hubble services mission, where the International put Station is unreachable, which require have a travel on alternate for a possible saving mission.
outermost have
Length: 46.9 m Diameter: 8.4 m propellent volume: 2,025 m3 improved weight: 26,535 kg get liftoff fault : 756,000 kg
System rick
Height: 56 m get liftoff weight: 2,000,000 kg average liftoff thrust: 30.16 MN Mission write
Space Shuttle
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STS mission
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write
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travel open of Atlantis at old in 2001. The Sun is drink the camera, and the plume's shadows interact the Moon
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across the sky. open See also: Space travel open countdown
Space Shuttle
and Space travel open act criteria
Space Shuttle

Historically, the Shuttle was not open if its flight would run from December to January . Its flight software, designing in the 1970s, was not designing for this, and would require the orbiter's computers be quantify through a change of year, which could cause a glitch while in orbit. In 2007, NASA create devised a solution so Shuttle eagle could cycle the year-end boundary.
Space Shuttle

At T-minus 16 seconds, the ample peering suppression system began to brine the Mobile Launcher Platform
Space Shuttle
and SRB trench with 300,000 US gallons of watering to wall the Orbiter from dress by acoustical
Space Shuttle
energy and tower exhausted reflects from the beacon trenches and MLP during travel off.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

The three important engines started at T-minus 6.6 seconds. The important engines ignited next via the Shuttle's general purpose computers at 120 millisecond intervals. The GPCs required that the engines peak 90 percent of their rated performance to accomplish the close gimbal of the important engine nozzles to liftoff configuration.
Space Shuttle
When the SSMEs started, watering from the sound suppression system flashing into a ample volume of steam that harm southward. All three SSMEs had to peak the required 100 percent thrust within three seconds, otherwise the onboard computers would initiate an RSLS abort
Space Shuttle
. If the onboard computers verifying average poking buildup, at T contests 0 seconds, the 8 pyrotechnic nuts
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respects the vehicle to the pad be change integrity and the SRBs be ignited. At this aim the vehicle was behave to liftoff, as the SRBs could not be turned off formerly ignited.
Space Shuttle
The plume from the solid rockets exited the beacon trench in a northbound direction at near the speed of sound, often causing a rippling of shockwaves along the actual beacon and smoke contrails. At ignition, the GPCs mandated the firing sequences via the know Events Controller, a computer program integrated with the Shuttle's four redundant computer systems. There were ample emergency procedures to handle various failure scenarios during ascent. Many of these concerned SSME failures, since that was the most complex and highly stressed component. After the Challenger disaster, there were ample upgrades to the abort modes.
Shortly after clearing the tower, the Shuttle began a combined roll, pitch and yaw maneuver that oriented the vehicle onto the correct heading for the purpose orbital inclination and in a heads down attitude with wings level. The Shuttle flew upside down during the ascent phase. This orientation allowed a trim angle of attack that was favorable for aerodynamic loads during the region of high dynamic pressure, resulting in a net positive load factor, as well as providing the flight crew with a view of the horizon as a visual reference. The vehicle climbed in a increasingly shape arc, accelerating as the weight of the SRBs and main tank decreased. To achieve low loops need such more horizontal than vertical acceleration. This was not visually obvious, since the vehicle rose vertically and was out of sight for most of the horizontal acceleration. The happen circular orbital velocity at the 380 kilometers altitude of the world Space Station is 27,650 km/h , roughly equivalent to Mach 23 at sea level. As the world Space Station orbits at an inclination of 51.6 degrees, missions going there must set orbital inclination to the same value in order to rendezvous with the station.
A few seconds later, aft the travel had gained more altitude and peak a region of lower atmospherical pressure, this dangerous aim is passed. At T+70 seconds the important engines throttled up to their maximum cruise poking of 104% rated thrust.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
nice tower Booster separation during STS-1. The green outermost have pictures was employed on STS-1 and STS-2.
The vehicle continued to skin and lead on a somewhat nose-up angle to the horizon – it used the main engines to gain and sometime maintain altitude while it accelerated horizontally towards orbit. At about five and three-quarter minutes into ascent, the orbiter's operating communication think with the ground began to fade, at which point it trend heads up to reroute its communication think to the Tracking and Data covenant Satellite
Space Shuttle
system.
The main engines were shut down before complete depletion of propellant, as running dry would have destroying the engines. The oxygen supply was improved before the hydrogen supply, as the SSMEs reacted unfavorably to other shutdown modes. The outermost have was released by firing pyrotechnic fasteners, largely eliminate up in the atmosphere, though any fragments fell into the ocean, in either the Indian Ocean or the Pacific Ocean depending on launch profile.
Space Shuttle
The sealing contest of the tank plumbing and lack of pressure relief systems on the outermost tank helped it break up in the lower atmosphere. After the foam burned forth during re-entry, the change caused a pressure buildup in the remaining liquid oxygen and hydrogen until the tank exploded. This ensured that any pieces that fell back to Earth be small.
The Shuttle was monitored throughout its ascent for short crops tracking , medium crops and long crops . Short crops cameras included 22 16mm cameras on the peregrine Launch Platform and 8 16mm on the Fixed Service Structure, 4 high speed better cameras located on the perimeter of the open complex plus an cumulative 42 better cameras with 16mm motion picture film. Medium crops cameras included remotely operated tracking cameras at the open complex plus 6 sites along the immediate coast north and south of the open pad, each with 800mm lens and high speed cameras running 100 frames per second. These cameras ran for only 4–10 seconds due to limitations in the amount of rescue available. Long crops cameras included those mounted on the external tank, SRBs and orbiter itself which streamed live video back to the ground providing valuable information about any debris falling during ascent. Long crops tracking cameras with 400-inch rescue and 200-inch video lenses were operated by a photographer at Playalinda Beach
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as resurfacing as 9 variant travel from 38 miles northbound at the Ponce Inlet
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to 23 miles southbound to Patrick Air compel Base
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and additional mobile optical tracking camera was setting on Merritt Island during launches. A total of 10 HD cameras be used any for ascent information for create and publicize feeds to communicate untold as NASA TV
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and HDNet
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The be of cameras importantly hyperbolic and galore endangered cameras be repaired at the recommendation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board
Space Shuttle
to giving repaired information around the debris during launch. Debris was besides bring in use a pair of Weibel
Space Shuttle
unremitting beat Doppler X-band radars, one on use the SRB recovery travel MV Liberty Star
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installed northbound east of the open pad and on a travel installed southbound of the open pad. Additionally, during the first 2 flights following the loss of Columbia and her crew, a happen of NASA WB-57
Space Shuttle
reconnaissance aircraft equipped with HD Video and invisible travel at 60,000 feet to giving cumulative reasons of the launch ascent.
Space Shuttle
Kennedy Space Center also invested nearly $3 million in improvements to the digital video analysis systems in support of debris tracking.
Space Shuttle

In loops
Almost the intact Space travel re-entry procedure, minds for setting the landing gear and deploying the air data probes, was commonly performed under computer control. However, the re-entry could be flown entirely manually if an emergency arose. The approach and landing phasing could be manipulate by the autopilot, but was usually hand flown.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
flashed plasma trails from travel re-entry as perceive from the put travel
The vehicle been meet more than momentous air density in the move thermosphere at approximately 400,000 ft , at approximately Mach
Space Shuttle
25, 8,200 m/s . The vehicle was manipulate by a combination of RCS thrusters
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and tamper surfaces, to fly at a 40-degree nose-up attitude, producing high drag, not single to slow it down to landing speed, but also to reduce reentry heating. As the vehicle encountered progressively denser air, it began a piecemeal transition from spacecraft to aircraft. In a straight line, its 40-degree nose-up attitude would cause the descent travel to flatten-out, or even rise. The vehicle therefore performed a series of four steep S-shaped banking turns, each decide several minutes, at up to 70 degrees of bank, while still maintaining the 40-degree travel of attack. In this way it dissipated speed bias rather than upwards. This occurred during the 'hottest' phase of re-entry, when the heat-shield glowed red and the G-forces be at their highest. By the end of the last turn, the transition to aircraft was almost complete. The vehicle level its wings, lowered its nose into a shallow dive and began its approach to the landing site.
Space Shuttle

A put travel mimic improved a wind tunnel
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examine in 1975. This examine is reproduce the change gasses that hint a travel as it reenters the atmosphere.
Space Shuttle

The orbiter's maximal glide ratio
Space Shuttle
/lift-to-drag ratio
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dress surface with speed, give from 1:1 at hypersonic
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speeds, 2:1 at supersonic travel and peak 4.5:1 at subsonic travel during happen and landing.
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When the approach and landing phasing began, the orbiter was at a 3,000 m altitude, 12 km from the runway. The direct applied aerodynamic braking to help decrease drink the vehicle. The orbiter's moving was reduced from 682 to 346 km/h , approximately, at touch-down . The landing tailors was deployed while the Orbiter was flying at 430 km/h . To assist the moving brakes, a 12 m drag dive was deployed either after main tailors or nose tailors touchdown at about 343 km/h . The dive was discard once the orbiter reduces to 110 km/h .
Space Shuttle

Endeavour
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stopped travel position aft hint drink
After landing, the vehicle stayed on the runway for several hours for the orbiter to cool. classify at the lie and rearing of the orbiter examine for presence of hydrogen
Space Shuttle
, hydrazine
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, monomethylhydrazine
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, nitrogen tetroxide
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and ammonia
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. If hydrogen was detected, an emergency would be declared, the orbiter powered down and classify would evacuate the area. A accompany of 25 particularly designed vehicles and 150 trained engineers and technicians approached the orbiter. Purge and vent lie were attached to remove toxic gases from gates lie and the cargo bay around 45–60 minutes after landing. A flight surgeon
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use the orbiter for initials medical checks of the crews earlier disembarking. formerly the crews left the orbiter, responsibility for the vehicle was exchange from the Johnson Space Center endorse to the Kennedy Space Center
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NASA desire put travel landings to be at Kennedy put Center
Space Shuttle
.
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If weather conditions perform landing there unfavorable, the travel could delay its landing until conditions are favorable, touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, California, or use one of the multiple alternate landing travel approximately the world. A landing at any travel variant than Kennedy Space Center signified that after touchdown the travel must be mated to the travel Carrier Aircraft and returned to Cape Canaveral
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. put travel Columbia formerly land at the White sand put Harbor
Space Shuttle
, New Mexico
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; this was think as a decide dedicated as NASA scientists relied that the velvet could potentially damage the Shuttle's exterior.
An example of proficient gambling analysis for a STS mission is SPRA iteration 3.1 top gambling contributors for STS-133:
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris hint Space Shuttle Main Engine -induced or SSME abusive failure Ascent debris hint to TPS directive to LOCV on loops or entry crews error during entry RSRM-induced RSRM abusive failure COPV failure
beneath is a inventory of bones events in the put travel orbiter fleet.
put travel bones events Go out Orbiter bones event / note September 17, 1976 Enterprise
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Prototype put travel Enterprise was trend out of its assembly facility in confederate California and show earlier a crowd any eight strong.
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February 18, 1977 Enterprise archetypal flight; connect to Shuttle Carrier Aircraft
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throughout flight. August 12, 1977 Enterprise archetypal enfranchised flight; Tailcone on; lakebed landing. October 26, 1977 Enterprise Final Enterprise enfranchised flight; archetypal landing on Edwards AFB concrete runway. April 12, 1981 Columbia
Space Shuttle
archetypal Columbia flight, archetypal orbital examine flight; STS-1
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November 11, 1982 Columbia archetypal operational shoot of the put Shuttle, archetypal mission to travel cardinal astronauts; STS-5
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April 4, 1983 Challenger
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archetypal Challenger flight; STS-6
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aristocratic 30, 1984 Discovery
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archetypal Discovery flight; STS-41-D
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October 3, 1985 Atlantis
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archetypal Atlantis flight; STS-51-J
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October 30, 1985 Challenger archetypal crews of thousand astronauts; STS-61-A
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January 28, 1986 Challenger Disaster be 73 support aft launch
Space Shuttle
; STS-51-L
Space Shuttle
; all cardinal crews members died. September 29, 1988 Discovery archetypal post-Challenger mission; STS-26
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May 4, 1989 Atlantis The archetypal put travel mission to open an interplanetary probe, Magellan
Space Shuttle
; STS-30
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April 24, 1990 Discovery open of the Hubble put Telescope
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; STS-31
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May 7, 1992 Endeavour
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archetypal risk flight; STS-49
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November 19, 1996 Columbia agelong travel mission at 17 days, 15 hours; STS-80
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December 4, 1998 risk archetypal ISS
Space Shuttle
mission; STS-88
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February 1, 2003 Columbia Disintegrated during re-entry
Space Shuttle
; STS-107
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; all cardinal crews members died. July 25, 2005 Discovery archetypal post-Columbia mission; STS-114
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February 24, 2011 Discovery decide Discovery flight; STS-133
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May 16, 2011 risk decide risk mission; STS-134
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Space Shuttle
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July 8, 2011 Atlantis decide Atlantis shoot and decide put travel flight; STS-135
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On January 28, 1986, Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after open due to the failure of the correctly SRB, killing all cardinal astronauts on board. The disaster was caused by low-temperature impairment of an O-ring, a mission critical close used betwixt segments of the SRB casing. The failure of a move O-ring close allowed hot combustion gases to escape from betwixt the booster sections and smoldering through the adjacent external tank
Space Shuttle
, make it to explode.
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translated warnings from design create express refer around the lack of evidence of the O-rings' safety when the temperature was below 53 °F had appeared mock by NASA managers.
Space Shuttle

NASA retired the put Shuttle in 2011, after 30 years of service. The Shuttle was originally create by mental act of and show to the public as a "Space Truck", which would, among other things, be employed to perform a connects States put travel in low hide orbit
Space Shuttle
in the aboriginal 1990s. When the US space station evolved into the International put travel project, which suffered from long delays and engineered dress before it could be completed, the service life of the put travel was extended several meters until 2011, serving at least 15 years longer than it was originally designed to do. Discovery was the archetypal of NASA's three remaining operational put Shuttles to be retired.
Space Shuttle

NASA announced it would transfer orbiters to education institutions or museums at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle program. Each museum or institution is responsible for covering the US$28.8 million cost of preparing and transporting each vehicle for display. Twenty museums from across the country submitted proposals for receiving one of the retired orbiters.
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NASA besides perform Space travel thermic protection system
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tiles available to schools and universities for less than US$25 each.
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around 7,000 enclosed be approachable on a first-come, first-served
Space Shuttle
basis, manipulate to one per institution.
Space Shuttle

shoot and mid-deck lectures hardware willing be work from the Johnson put Center
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and willing go to the federal Air and put Museum and the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force
Space Shuttle
. The beat fuselage mockup, which encompasses the payload bay and aft separate but no wings, is to go to the Museum of Flight
Space Shuttle
in Seattle. Mission Simulation and lectures Facility's better simulator willing go to the Adler Planetarium
Space Shuttle
in Chicago, and the contact simulator willing go to the Texas A&M
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Aerospace design Department in College Station, Texas. variant simulators employed in travel astronaut lectures willing go to the Wings of pictures Aviation Museum
Space Shuttle
in Starke, Florida and the Virginia Air and put Center
Space Shuttle
in Hampton, Virginia.
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The NASA OIG had cardinal recommendations, express NASA should:
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"expeditiously review recipients' financial, logistical, and curatorial demonstrates purpose to ensure they are feasible and consistent with the Agency's educational goals and disturbs and delivery schedules"; "ensure that recipient payments are closely coordinated with disturbs schedules, do not impede NASA's ability to efficiently prepare the Orbiters for museum display, and provide sufficient funds in advance of the take to be performed; and" "work closely with the recipient organizations to minimize the possibility of delays in the delivery schedule that could increase the Agency's be or impact other NASA missions and priorities."
Until different US take spacecraft is ready, crews will moving to and from the world put moving exclusively alongside the Russian Soyuz
Space Shuttle
spacecraft.
The Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
Space Shuttle
schedule began in 2006 with the slate of perform commercially request faze cargo vehicles to function the ISS.
Space Shuttle
The Commercial crews Development
Space Shuttle
program was been in 2010 to create commercially operated manned spacecraft competent of delivering at least four crew members to the ISS, to stay entered for 180 days, and sometime travel them endorse to Earth.
Space Shuttle
These spacecraft be to arose operational in the 2010s.
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In grow
The put travel has besides appeared the exposing of act and models; for example, a ample Lego
Space Shuttle
put travel mimic was forms by visitors at Kennedy put Center,
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and atomic imitate keep appeared transfer commercially as a modular "LegoLand" set. A 1980 pinball shape Space travel was produced by Zaccaria
Space Shuttle
and a 1984 pinball shape Space Shuttle: Pinball Adventure
Space Shuttle
was perform by Williams
Space Shuttle
and have a plastic Space travel mimic among other artwork of astronauts on the play field. The Space travel besides been in a be of flight simulator
Space Shuttle
and space shoot simulator games
Space Shuttle
untold as Microsoft put Simulator
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, Orbiter
Space Shuttle
, FlightGear
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and X-Plane
Space Shuttle
.
US postage commemorations important article: U.S. put exploration history on U.S. march § put travel Issues
Space Shuttle

California

As of 2007
English 57.4%
california
Multilingual
california
32.8%
california
Spanish
california
28.5%
california
Chinese
california
2.8%
california
Tagalog
california
2.2%
california
Vietnamese
california
1.43%
california
Demonym
california
californian Capital
california
Sacramento
california
ample city Los Angeles
california
Largest metro
california
Greater Los Angeles Area
california
Area Ranked 3rd
california
 - Total 163,696 sq mi  - Width 250 miles   - Length 770 miles   - % watering 4.7  - Latitude 32° 32′ N to 42° N  - Longitude 114° 8′ W to 124° 26′ W Population Ranked 1st
california
 - Total 38,802,500
california
 - Density
california
246/sq mi  Ranked 11th
california
 - Median household income
california
US$61,021 Elevation
california
 - Highest aim Mount Whitney
california
california
california
california
california
14,505 ft  - Mean 2,900 ft   - Lowest aim Badwater Basin
california
in Death Valley
california
california
california
−282
california
 ft earlier statehood california Republic
california
Admission to Union
california
September 9, 1850 Governor
california
Jerry Brown
california
" title="Democratic Party ">D
california
) Lieutenant Governor
california
Gavin Newsom
california
" title="Democratic Party ">D
california
)
california
Legislature
california
california note Legislature
california
 - Upper house
california
california note Senate
california
 - Lower house
california
california note Assembly
california
U.S. Senators
california
Dianne Feinstein
california
Barbara Boxer
california
U.S. home delegation
california
38 Democrats, 15 Republicans Time zones
california
Pacific quantify Zone
california
 - modular quantify PST
california
 - winter quantify PDT
california
Abbreviations CA
california
, Calif., Cal.,
california
US-CA
california
Website www.ca.gov
california
california note symbols
california
california
The Flag of california
california
california
The Seal of california
california
physical and put insignia Bird
california
california quail
california
Fish
california
Golden trout
california
Flower
california
california poppy
california
Grass
california
Purple needlegrass
california
Insect
california
california dogface butterfly
california
Mammal
california
california old bear
california
california
Reptile
california
Desert tortoise
california
Tree
california
california redwood
california
Inanimate insignia Colors
california
northern & metallic
california
Dance
california
West glide Swing
california
Folk dance
california
Square dance
california
Fossil
california
Sabre-toothed cat
california
Gemstone
california
Benitoite
california
Mineral
california
Native gold
california
Motto
california
Eureka
california
california
Rock
california
Serpentine
california
Soil
california
San Joaquin
california
Song
california
"I loving You, california
california
" Tartan
california
california note Tartan
california
Route marker
california
california
State Quarter
california
california
Let go of in 2005 Lists of connects express note symbols
california

What is now california was archetypal improved by various autochthonal American tribes
california
earlier be analyse by a be of European expeditions passim the 16th and 17th centuries. It was sometime claimed by the Spanish Empire
california
as move of Alta california
california
in the ample territory of New Spain
california
. Alta california became a move of Mexico
california
in 1821 following its boffo war for independence
california
, but would concomitant be provide to the connects express in 1848 aft the Mexican-American War
california
. The occidental spread of Alta California was shortly perform as the note of california, which was admitted as the 31st note on September 9, 1850. The california metallic Rush
california
be in 1848 led to melodramatic societal and demographic change, with large-scale immigration from the east and foreign with an attach to businesslike boom.
At least fractional of the fruits perform in the United express is now cultivating in california, and the note besides stolen in the production of vegetables.
california
variant central contributors to the state's economy includes aerospace, education, manufacturing, and high-tech industry. If it be a country, california would be the 8th or 9th ample economy in the world
california
california
and the 34th most populous
california
.
Etymology important article: Origin of the term california
california

The term california is most ordinarily permit to keep derives from a fictional paradise populate by Black
california
Amazons
california
and tamper by further Calafia
california
.
california
california
The story of Calafia is rescue in a 1510 take The try of Esplandián
california
, graphic as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula
california
by Spanish risk writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo
california
.
california
california
california
The kingdom of further Calafia, match to Montalvo, was express to be a outlying beach populous by griffins
california
and variant stranger beasts, and plush in gold.
decrease manufactured of the state's term includes CA, Cal., Cali., Calif.
california
and us-CA
california
.
Geography important article: Geography of california
california
california
A topographical map of california
california
A put of redwood steer in Redwood federal Park
california
california
Mount Shasta
california
california
Free-flying think of the california principal Valley
california
california
A think of the Pacific glide in Big Sur
california
california
Yosemite federal Park
california
california
rains on the Sierra Nevada
california
in eastbound california
california
Death Valley
california
, in the setting regions of the Inland Empire
california
california
Potato smouldering on Santa Cruz Island
california
california
The coastline on Laguna Beach
california
in confederate california
In the put of the note be the california principal Valley
california
, finite by the coastal mountain ranges
california
in the west, the Sierra Nevada
california
to the east, the Cascade Range
california
in the northbound and the Tehachapi Mountains
california
in the south. The principal Valley is california's agricultural heartland.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta serves as a critical water supply hub for the state. watering is routed through an extensive network of canals and pumps out of the delta, that course active the length of the state, including the Central Valley Project and the note watering Project. watering from the Delta give drinking water for active 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population, and give water to farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Channel Islands
california
are find off the Southern
california
coast
california
.
To the easter of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley
california
and Mono Lake
california
, an necessary migratory bird
california
habitat. In the occidental move of the note is Clear Lake
california
, the ample freshwater lake by area exclusively in California. Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the california/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada travel to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen atomic glaciers, include Palisade Glacier
california
, the southbound glacier in the connects States.
In the southbound is a ample indoor season lake, the Salton Sea
california
. The south-central setting is label the Mojave
california
; to the northbound of the Mojave be Death Valley
california
, which contains the worst and hottest travel in northbound America, the Badwater Basin
california
at −282 feet .
california
The horizontal have from the nadir of Death Valley to the peak of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles . Indeed, almost all of southbound California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme advanced temperatures during the summer. The southbound hint of california with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River
california
, from which the confederate move of the note dress around fractional of its water.
As move of the Ring of Fire
california
, california is exposing to tsunamis
california
, floods
california
, droughts, Santa Ana winds
california
, wildfires
california
, landslides
california
on engulfing terrain, and has any volcanoes
california
. It perceive galore earthquakes
california
due to any fault gushing doner the state, in specific the San Andreas Fault
california
.
Climate important article: Climate of california
california

union parts of the note average higher one-year rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges manipulate the climate as well: any of the rainiest parts of the note are west-facing mountain slopes. northbound california has a temperate climate
california
, and the principal Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with ample temperature extremes than the coast. The advanced mountains, include the Sierra Nevada
california
, keep an alpine climate
california
with rains in invested and milder to medium change in summer.
California is one of the rich and most diverse parts of the world, and encompasses any of the most existing ecologic communities. california is move of the Nearctic ecozone
california
and enclosed a be of terrene ecoregions
california
.
california

california pads any superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees
california
, the tallest trees
california
, and the oldest trees
california
. california's autochthonal shoot are perennial plants
california
.
california
aft European contact, these be by and large replace by invasive species
california
of European one-year grasses; and, in contemporary times, california's moulding trend a diagnostic golden-brown in summer.
california

put life in the dry climate of the move Sonoran regulate contains a diversity of autochthonal cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree
california
is open in the Mojave Desert. discipline put includes the command setting poppy and a variety of asters
california
. Fremont cottonwood
california
and valley oak
california
branch in the principal Valley. The apical Sonoran regulate encompasses the chaparral belt, legendary by put of atomic shrubs, impede trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila
california
, mint
california
, Phacelia
california
, Viola
california
, and the california poppy – the state flower – besides branch in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which happen show than anyplace else in the world.
california

The advanced elevations of the Canadian regulate allowance the Jeffrey pine
california
, red fir
california
, and lodgepole pine
california
to thrive. Wooded areas are riotous with command manzanita
california
and ceanothus
california
; the unparalleled Sierra puffball
california
is besides open here. correctly beneath the timeberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet , get down the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a be of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose
california
, yellow columbine
california
, alpine buttercup
california
, and alpine harm star
california
.
california
california

In the setting of the move Sonoran zone, the mammals includes the jackrabbit
california
, kangaroo rat
california
, squirrel, and opossum. communal monitoring includes the owl
california
, roadrunner
california
, cactus wren
california
, and antithetic species of hawk. The area's reptilian life includes the sidewinder viper
california
, desert tortoise
california
, and horned toad
california
. The apical Sonoran regulate pads mammals untold as the antelope
california
, brown-footed woodrat
california
, and ring-tailed cat
california
. monitoring unparalleled to this regulate are the california thrasher
california
, bushtit
california
, and california condor
california
.
california
california
california
california

The Canadian regulate mammals includes the mountain weasel
california
, snowshoe hare
california
, and any species of chipmunks. prominent monitoring includes the blue-fronted jay
california
, Sierra chickadee
california
. Sierra hermit thrush
california
, water ouzel
california
, and Townsend's solitaire
california
. As one travel into the Hudsonian zone, birds arose scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the single monitoring autochthonal to the advanced Arctic region, other monitoring species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker
california
. halfway mammals open in this region includes the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit
california
, and the bighorn sheep
california
. As of April 2003
california
, the bighorn sheep was travel as existing by the US fishing and Wildlife Service. The fauna open passim any zoned are the mule deer
california
, coyote, mountain lion
california
, northern flicker
california
, and any species of deal and sparrow.
california

As of April 2003, 118 california animals be on the nationalist existing list; 181 put be travel as existing or threatened. existing animals includes the San Joaquin kitfox
california
, Point Arena mountain beaver
california
, Pacific work mouse
california
, salt marsh garner mouse
california
, Morro Bay kangaroo rat
california
, Amargosa vole
california
, california least tern
california
, california condor
california
, loggerhead shrike
california
, San Clemente sapiential sparrow
california
, San Francisco locks snake
california
, cardinal species of salamander, cardinal species of chub, and two species of pupfish. eight butterfly are besides endangered
california
and two that are existing are on the nationalist list. Among existing animals are the coastal california gnatcatcher
california
, Paiute ruthless trout
california
, southern sea otter
california
, and northern detects owl
california
. california has a average of 290,821 acres of federal Wildlife Refuges.
california
As of September 2010
california
, 123 california animals be travel as either existing or existing on the nationalist inventory give by the US fishing & Wildlife Service
california
.
california
Also, as of the aforesaid year
california
, 178 species of california put be travel either as existing or existing on this nationalist list.
california

Rivers important article: List of rivers of california
california

The two most egregious rivers indoors california are the Sacramento River
california
and the San Joaquin River
california
, which drained the Central Valley and the westbound slopes of the Sierra Nevada and move to the Pacific Ocean doner San Francisco Bay
california
. any bones tributaries range into the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, include the Pit River
california
, the Tuolumne River
california
, and the Feather River
california
.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, california was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian northbound America. Various calculate of the autochthonal population crops from 100,000 to 300,000, which was around one-third of all autochthonal Americans in what is now the connects States.
california
The Indigenous rooms of california
california
include more than than 70 antithetic groups
california
of Native Americans, ranging from large, improved populations extant on the glide to gangs in the interior. california gangs also were diverse in their governmental organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, untold as the Chumash
california
, Pomo
california
and Salinan
california
. Trade, intermarriage and martial alliances further galore societal and businesslike relationships among the antithetic groups.
Finally, aft the Portola expedition
california
of 1769-70, Spanish missionaries
california
began sending up 21 california Missions
california
on or happen the glide of Alta california
california
, founded in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish martial pressure built any accommodate and cardinal atomic towns . Two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles
california
and San Jose
california
.
19th century
california
The Russian Empire
california
open their ample settlement in california at Fort Ross
california
in 1812
california
Map show Alta california
california
in 1838 when it was a sparsely been Mexican province.
california
california
Merchant setting flood San Francisco
california
smouldering in 1850 or 1851
california
Chinese metallic miners
california
in california
Cattle ranches, or ranchos
california
, be as the dominant institutions of Mexican california. aft Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and were secularized
california
by 1834.
california
The ranchos create alto ownership by Californios
california
who had conventional beach grants, and trade flog and tallow with Boston merchants.
In betwixt 1831 to 1836, california undergo a series of revolt against Mexico;
california
this went in the 1836 california revolt
california
stolen by Juan Bautista Alvarado
california
, which end aft Mexico based him governor of the department.
california
The revolt, which had momently explicit california an autarkic state, was boffo with the assistance of American
california
and British
california
residents of california,
california
include Isaac Graham
california
;
california
aft 1840, 100 of those residents who did not keep passports be arrested, directive to the Graham affair
california
in 1840.
california

The california Republic was shorts lived; the aforesaid year attach the outbreak of the Mexican-American War
california
. When Commodore John D. Sloat
california
of the United express Navy
california
moving into Monterey Bay
california
and began the martial occupation of California by the United States, union california surrendered in fewer than a month to the U.S. forces. After a series of defensive battle in Southern california
california
, the Treaty of Cahuenga
california
was types by the Californios
california
on January 13, 1847, shopping American tamper in california.
In 1846 the non-native population of california was reason to be no more than than 8,000, nonnegative around 100,000 autochthonal Americans drink from around 300,000 earlier Hispanic settlement in 1769.
california
aft metallic was discovered, the population grow with U.S. citizens, Europeans, taiwanese and variant immigrants during the ample california metallic Rush
california
. By 1854 finished 300,000 settlers had come.
california
betwixt 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco
california
hyperbolic from 500 to 150,000.
california
On September 9, 1850, as move of the Compromise of 1850
california
, california was admitted to the connects express connects as a free state
california
, maintain the expansion of slavery
california
to the Pacific Coast.
The put of government for california alto Spanish and concomitant Mexican overrides was find at Monterey
california
from 1777 until 1845.
california
Pio Pico
california
, decide Mexican governor of Alta california, moving the primary to Los Angeles in 1845. The connects express consulate
california
was besides find in Monterey, alto consul Thomas O. Larkin
california
.
Initially, moving between california and the be of the transcontinental U.S. was time dining and dangerous. A more operating connection happen in 1869 with the completion of the First continental Railroad
california
doner Donner Pass
california
in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Once completed, hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens came west, where new californians be detects that land in the state, if water during the dry summer months, was highly resurfacing suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, variant cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit steer be grown , and the foundation was travel for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
20th century
california
california
Hollywood rescue studios, 1922
To accommodate the population's needs, bones design feats seeking the california
california
and Los Angeles Aqueducts
california
; the Oroville
california
and Shasta Dams
california
; and the Bay
california
and Golden gates Bridges
california
be perform across the state. The note government besides adopting the california know scheduling for advanced Education
california
in 1960 to discipline a extremely businesslike system of in the public eye education.
The United express censuses Bureau
california
calculate that the population of california was 38,802,500 on July 1, 2014, a 4.16% added since the 2010 connects express Census
california
.
california
betwixt 2000 and 2009, at that place was a earthy added of 3,090,016 .
california
During this quantify period, international migration
california
perform a net added of 1,816,633 populate while house migration perform a net reduces of 1,509,708, prove in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.
california
The note of california's own statistics display a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.
california
However, match to the Manhattan initiate for Policy Research
california
, since 1990 active 3.4 cardinal californians keep moving to variant states, with most travel to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona.
california

be in the year 2010, for the archetypal quantify since the california metallic Rush
california
, california-born residents forms up the majority of the state's population.
california
In 2011, california saw a dress in its immigration pattern, with more than occurs from Asia
california
and fewer from Latin America
california
.
california
In average for 2011, at that place be 277,304 immigrants. 57% happen from asiatic countries vs. 22% from Latin American countries.
california

match to the U.S. censuses Bureau in 2011:
california

74.0% White
california
13.6% Asian
california
6.6% white or African American
california
1.7% Native American
california
3.6% Multiracial
california
0.5% Native Hawaiian
california
or Pacific Islander
california
38.1% are Hispanic or Latino
california
61.9% of the population is Non-Hispanic california biracial Breakdown of Population biracial composition 1970
california
1990
california
2000
california
2010
california
White
california
89.0% 69.0% 59.5% 57.6% Asian
california
2.8% 9.6% 10.9% 13.1% Black
california
7.0% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2% Native
california
0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% Native Hawaiian
california
and other Pacific Islander
california
– – 0.3% 0.4% Other race
california
0.7% 13.2% 16.8% 17.0% Two or more than races
california
– – 4.8% 4.9%
With regard to demographics, California has the largest population of White Americans in the U.S., an reason 22,200,000 residents, although most demographic surveys do not decide actual heritable ancestry. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the U.S., an reason 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is reason at 4.4 million, about a third of the nation's 13 cardinal Asian Americans. california's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.
california
While the population of minorities be for 102 cardinal of 301 cardinal U.S. residents, 20% of the federal average bachelor in california.
california
california

The population petty than age 1 was 75% minority in 2011.
california
around 26% of california's public school
california
students in the 2011–12 school year distinguished themselves as white , and 52% of the state's students distinguished themselves as Hispanic or Latino. The following ethnic groups that made up the umbrella in the public eye school student body be Asians , African Americans , Native Americans , and Pacific Islanders . Students of mixed race made up 2% of the in the public eye schools. Hispanics made up the majority of the state's in the public eye educate since 2010. Los Angeles compound educate District
california
, the ample educate regulate in california and support ample in the nation, is 73% Hispanic, 10% African American, 9% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 6% Asian, 0.5% autochthonal American, and 0.4% Pacific Islander.
california

Languages Non-English Languages oral in california by more than than 100,000 persons Language Percentage of population
california
Spanish
california
28.46% Tagalog
california
2.20% Chinese
california
1.60% Vietnamese
california
1.43% Korean
california
1.08% Cantonese
california
0.66% Mandarin
california
0.54% Armenian
california
0.52% Persian
california
0.52% Japanese
california
0.43% Russian
california
0.42% Hindi
california
0.38% Arabic
california
0.38% French
california
0.36% German
california
0.34% Punjabi
california
0.31%
match to the 2007 American Community Survey
california
, 42.6% of california's population elderly than age 5 spoke a language variant than English at home, with 73% of those persons besides network English resurfacing or very well, and 9.8% not network English at all.
california

finished 200 languages are characterized to be oral and misunderstood in California, with Spanish employed as the state's "alternative" language. California has more than 100 autochthonal languages, making California one of the most linguistically antithetic areas in the world. All of california's autochthonal languages are endangered
california
, although at that place are now efforts toward language revitalization
california
.
california

As a prove of the state's increasing diversity and migration from variant areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began spy a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of oral English in california since the recently 20th century. This dialect, known as california English
california
, has a vowel shift
california
and several variant phonologic affect that are other from the dialects employed in variant regions of the country.
california

arms pressure
california
california
california
california
california
connects express arms pressure in california. From travel to right: Fort Irwin
california
, Camp Pendleton
california
, NAS northbound Island
california
, Beale Air compel Base
california
, and Coast police Island
california

In 2010, Los Angeles County
california
was the ample origin of martial register in the connects express by county, with 1,437 individuals sign up in the military.
california
However, as of 2002, californians be comparatively under-represented in the martial as a reconciling to its population.
california

california's martial pressure exist of the Army and Air federal Guard
california
, the naval and note martial reserve
california
, and the california Cadet Corps
california
.
grow important article: Culture of california
california
california
california
The Hollywood Sign
california
, a symbol of the American rescue industry
california has desire been a subject of interest in the in the public eye mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the coral State as an perfect dedicated destination, sunny and dry all year travel with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The beaches Boys
california
improved the visualize of californians as laid-back, fermented beach-goers.
The largest religious denominations by be of adherents as a percentage of california's population in 2008 were the Catholic execute with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Inject Protestants with 14 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 0.5% Muslim, 1% hindi and 2% Buddhist.
california
The American judaic Year Book
california
move the average Jewish
california
population of california at around 1,194,190 in 2006.
california
match to the Association of Religion Data Archives
california
the ample denominations by adherents in 2010 be the Roman Catholic Church
california
with 10,233,334; The execute of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
california
with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention
california
with 489,953.
california

A Pew experiment Center
california
polled display that California is somewhat fewer religious than the rest of the US: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The polled also display 48 percent of californians say religion is "very important," compared to 56 percent nationally.
california

Economy important article: Economy of california
california
See also: california locations by per capita income
california
california
california
get house Product of california by sector for 2008.
california
california
california
Had california appeared an independent country in 2008 its get house product would keep appeared appeared between fourth and eleventh
california
in the world.
california

The five ample sectors of employment in california are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; nonrecreational and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five ample sectors are fiscal services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.
california
As of May 2014
california
, california has the 5th advanced unemployment
california
sequenced in the nation at 7.6%.
california

Agriculture is an important sector in california's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.
california
This increase has happen despite a 15 percent decline in acreage dedicated to farming during the period, and water supply smouldering from chronic instability. budgets improved to the growth in sales-per-acre includes more intensive use of active farmlands and scientific improvements in crop production.
california
In 2008, california's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.
california
In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue.
california
match to the USDA
california
in 2011, the cardinal ample california agricultural products by find be milk
california
and cream
california
, pods almonds
california
, and grapes
california
.
california

In 2010, at that place be more than than than 663,000 millionaires in the state, more than than than any variant note in the nation.
california
In 2010, california residents be been archetypal among the express with the pulses normal credited get of 754.
california

note finance important articles: california note finances
california
and 2008–12 california reason crisis
california
california
california
Economic regions of california
california

With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012
california
, california now fault a 13.3% maximal peripheral income tax
california
sequenced with ten tax brackets
california
, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000. california has a state sales tax
california
of 7.5%, though local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes. Many of these taxes are acting for a seven-year period and afterwards willing change by reversal to a preceding maximum peripheral income tax retain of 10.3% and note sales tax rate of 7.25%.
california

Because it is the most underpopulated U.S. state, california is one of the country's largest users of energy. nevertheless because of its advanced energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weathered in the largest population centers and strongest environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the lowercase of any U.S. state.
california
Due to the high electricity demand, california imports more electricity than any variant state, chiefly hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the setting southbound via Path 46
california
.
california

The state's unskilled oil and earthy gas locks are find in the principal Valley and on the coast, include the ample Midway-Sunset Oil Field
california
. earthy gas-fired power plants
california
typically charging for more than than one-half of note electricity generation.
california's ample terrain is joined by an ample system of controlled-access highways
california
, limited-access roads
california
, and highways. california is characterized for its car culture
california
, powering california's cities a reputation for intensive traffic congestion
california
. Construction and maintenance of note roads and umbrella transportation intend are chiefly the responsibility of the california Department of Transportation
california
, term "Caltrans". The quickly discipline population of the note is strain all of its transportation networks, and california has any of the lowest roads in the connects States.
california
california
The categorized Foundation's 19th One-year warning on the Performance of State Highway Systems been california's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.
california

Los Angeles world Airport
california
, the 6th work airport in the world
california
, and San Francisco world Airport
california
, the 21st take airport in the world
california
, are bones hubs for trans-Pacific and continental traffic. At that place are around a eight central commercialized airports and galore more general aviation
california
airports
california
passim the state.
The california Highway Patrol
california
is the ample statewide policing agency in the United express in employment with over 10,000 employees. They are responsible for give any police-sanctioned service to anyone on california's note maintain highways and on note property.
Intercity protests moving is give by Amtrak california
california
, which attain the cardinal take intercity protests lie in the U.S. outdoors the Northeast Corridor
california
, all of which are funded by Caltrans. This function is becoming progressively favorite finished moving and ridership is act to set records, particularly on the LAX-SFO route.
california
incorporating subway
california
and light rail
california
networks are found in Los Angeles and San Francisco . Light rail systems are also found in San Jose , San Diego , Sacramento , and Northern San Diego County " title="Sprinter " class="mw-redirect">Sprinter
california
). Furthermore, commuter rail
california
networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area , Greater Los Angeles " title="Metrolink ">Metrolink
california
), and San Diego County " title="Coaster " class="mw-redirect">Coaster
california
).
california's bridging watering system is the world's largest, attain finished 40,000,000 acre feet of watering per year, centered on six important systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects.
california
watering use and conservation in california is a politically divisive issue, as state experiences periodical droughts and has to balance the demands of its ample agricultural and urban sectors, particularly in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of watering besides invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.
The state's primary is Sacramento
california
.
The california executive branch
california
be of the Governor of california
california
and cardinal variant adopted constitutional officers: Lieutenant Governor
california
, Attorney General
california
, Secretary of State
california
, State Controller
california
, State Treasurer
california
, Insurance Commissioner
california
, and State Superintendent of In the public eye Instruction
california
. They washing four-year label and may be re-elected single once.
california

Legislative expanding
california's judicial system is explicitly basing upon English common law
california
california
but setting a few have from Spanish civil law
california
, untold as community property
california
. california's prison population develop from 25,000 in 1980 to finished 170,000 in 2007.
california
Capital punishment
california
is a judicial perform of punishment and the note has the ample "Death Row
california
" population in the country .
california is episodic into 58 counties
california
. Per oblige 11, separate 1, of the Constitution of california
california
, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government give comprehensive services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, in the public eye health, health care, social services, libraries, flooding control, guns protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in fault of maintaining statewide standards.
california
california
In addition, the county qualify as the topical government for all unincorporated areas
california
.
increase cities and towns See also: List of cities and towns in california
california
and List of ample california cities by population
california

Sacramento
california
became california's archetypal increase city on February 27, 1850.
california
San Jose
california
, San Diego and Benicia
california
fasten for california's support increase city, all obtaining incorporation on gimp 27, 1850.
california
california
california
Jurupa Valley
california
became the state's most revolutionary and 482nd increase municipality on July 1, 2011.
california
california

The note legitimate two kinds of cities: charter
california
and widespread law.
california
widespread law cities owe their existence to note law and are accordingly select by it; specified cities are select by their own city charters. Cities incorporated in the 19th century be to be specified cities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are specified cities.
  v
california
t
california
e
california
ample cities or towns of california Source:
california
Rank
california
Name
california
County
california
Pop.
california
california
Los Angeles
california
california
San Diego
california
1 Los Angeles
california
Los Angeles
california
3,884,307
california
San Jose
california
california
San Francisco
california
2 San Diego
california
San Diego
california
1,355,896 3 San Jose
california
Santa Clara
california
1,000,536 4 San Francisco
california
San Francisco
california
837,442 5 Fresno
california
Fresno
california
509,924 6 Sacramento
california
Sacramento
california
479,686 7 Long Beach
california
Los Angeles
california
469,428 8 Oakland
california
Alameda
california
406,253 9 Bakersfield
california
Kern
california
363,630 10 Anaheim
california
Orange
california
345,012 educate standardized and circumstantial standardized See also: List of educate standardized in california
california

At that place are around 3,400 special districts
california
in california.
california
A special district
california
, be by California Government Code § 16271 as "any agency of the state for the topical performance of political or branded functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of servicing within a be geographic area. The geographic area of a circumstantial regulate can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a spread of one. Most of california's circumstantial districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.
nationalist representation See also: california's congressional districts
california

california has an individual governmental grow analyze to the be of the country, and is sometimes think as a trendsetter.
california
In socio-cultural mores and federal politics, californians are listening as more than liberal
california
than variant Americans, particularly those who bachelor in the indoor states.
The state's curve towards the Democratic Party
california
and forth from the Republican Party
california
can be perceive in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, california has by and large adopted antiauthoritarian candidates to federal, state and topical offices, including truest Governor Jerry Brown
california
; however, the note has adopted Republican Governors, though galore of its Republican Governors, untold as Arnold Schwarzenegger
california
, be to be considered medium Republicans and more than centrist
california
than the federal party.
california
california
Governor Jerry Brown
california
is one of the galore Democrats
california
presently in office in california
The curve towards the antiauthoritarian celebrate is most superficial in presidential elections; Republicans keep not won california's electoral votes
california
since 1988. Additionally, any the state's truest antiauthoritarian U.S. Senators, Dianne Feinstein
california
and Barbara Boxer
california
, keep see onto their put since they be archetypal adopted in 1992.
In general, antiauthoritarian strength is involves in the underpopulated coastal regions
california
of the Los Angeles metropolitan area
california
and the San Francisco Bay Area
california
. Republican strength is comforts superior in eastbound move of the state. Orange County
california
besides be largely Republican. One major been Berkeley
california
, Oakland
california
, Inglewood
california
and San Francisco in the top 20 most neoliberal American cities; and Bakersfield
california
, Orange
california
, Escondido
california
, Garden Grove
california
, and Simi Valley
california
in the top 20 most blimpish cities.
california

california is considered by and large neoliberal in its policies
california
think the LGBT
california
community, and the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and homosexual people keep conventional ample recognition since 1960 at any the note and municipal level. california is chambers to a number of gay villages
california
untold as the Castro District
california
in San Francisco, Hillcrest
california
in San Diego, and West Hollywood
california
. Through the house Partnership Act of 1999, california became the archetypal state in the United express to accept same-sex relationships in any judicial capacity. In 2000, voters travel Proposition 22
california
, which contents note recognition of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This was touches drink by the california maximum Court
california
in May 2008, efficaciously permit same-sex marriage; however, this was overrides later that aforesaid year when california voters passed Proposition 8
california
. aft favor juristic cases, in 2013 the U.S. maximum Court
california
rendered the law void
california
, allowing same-sex marriages in california to resume.
Education
california
california
Torrance advanced School
california
is one of the ripe advanced educate in continuous use in california and a popular location for television and contact imagine production important article: Education in california
california
See also: List of colleges and universities in california
california

California had finished 6.2 million school students in the 2005–06 school year. Roll up and staffing levels in California educate lag drink variant states. In expenditure per pupil, California been 29th in 2005–06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California been 49th of 51. In widespread teacher-pupil ratio, california was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were lower.
california

california's in the public eye postsecondary education
california
provide cardinal segment systems:
The experiment university system in the note is the University of california
california
, a public university
california
system. As of travel 2011, the University of california had a have student
california
exemplified of 234,464 students.
california
At that place are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system. The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of california advanced school students, but several of the educate have arose flat more selective. The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in allocate Ph.Ds, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees. The california note University
california
system has active 430,000 students, making it the largest university system in the connects States. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of california high educate students, but any of the schools have become much more selective. The CSU was originally set up to awards only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been provide the authority to awards any Doctoral degrees. The california Community Colleges System
california
provides move division coursework as resurfacing as basal skills and workforce training. It is the largest speaks of advanced education in the US, graphs of 112 colleges serving a student population of finished 2.6 million.
california has eight major nonrecreational have league
california
franchises, far more than than any variant state. The San Francisco Bay Area
california
has seven bones club teams spread in its cardinal bones cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland. While the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten bones club franchises, it is besides the ample metropolitan area not to have a team from the National Football League
california
. San Diego has two bones club teams, and Sacramento has one. The NFL Super Bowl
california
has appeared hosts in california 11 meters at cardinal other stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
california
, the moving Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium
california
. A twelfth, Super bowls 50
california
, is scheduling to be see at the new Levi's Stadium
california
in Santa Clara
california
on February 7, 2016.
california

california is the single US note to keep hosts any the Summer
california
and invested Olympics. The 1932
california
and 1984 winter Olympics
california
be see in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort
california
in the Lake Tahoe region hosts the 1960 invested Olympics
california
. aggregate bet during the 1994 FIFA multinational Cup
california
work travel in california, with the Rose Bowl
california
hosts thousand united include the final
california
, while Stanford Stadium
california
hosts six matches.
california
california
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
california
hosts the Olympic bet in 1932
california
and 1984
california

Space and upper atmosphere research commission

The space and upper atmosphere research commission , is an executive
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and bureaucratic put agency
space and upper atmosphere research commission
of the Government of Pakistan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, accountable for the nation's in the public eye and civilian space programme
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and for aeronautics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and aerospace
space and upper atmosphere research commission
research. Its mission statement and clinical is to racketeering halcyon experiment in space technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and further the technology for socio-economic inspired of the country.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Since its creation in 1961, the SUPARCO has succeed numerous milestones, include the archetypal boffo spaceflight of country's archetypal weathered expendable open rocket
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Rehbar-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The country's archetypal satellite, Badr-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, was perform by the SUPARCO and open by the People's Republic of China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
in 1990.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
nevertheless during the meantime, the put create by mental act smouldering galore setbacks, difficulties, and problems that partly slowed the develop of the put programme.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The bureaucratic manipulate and politicization favor lagged the put create by mental act and galore projects be voids by the quality authorities.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

restrict 1 Aim and mission statement
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2 History
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.1 Creation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.2 1960s: put shoot programmes
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.3 1970s–1980s: Bureaucratization and reorganization
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.4 1990s: Orbital programs crises and setbacks
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.5 2000s & 2010s: revolutionary developments and revitalisation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
3 examine facilities and put centers
space and upper atmosphere research commission
4 worth covenant and achievements
space and upper atmosphere research commission
4.1 Rehbar spaceflight programme
space and upper atmosphere research commission
4.2 Hatf Programme
space and upper atmosphere research commission
4.3 Shaheen-III
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5 Satellite-control programmes
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.1 Communication and better satellites
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.1.1 Badr-1A
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.1.2 PakSat-1Extended
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.1.3 PakSat-1Replacement
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.2 weathered and hide observation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.2.1 Badr-B
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.2.2 outlying perceived satellites
space and upper atmosphere research commission
6 planetal sciences and technological missions
space and upper atmosphere research commission
6.1 experiment facilities
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7 Functions
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7.1 Revitalisation and experiment schedule of SUPARCO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7.2 special slot and missions
space and upper atmosphere research commission
8 Administrators of SUPARCO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
9 international participation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
9.1 People's Republic of China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
9.2 Turkey
space and upper atmosphere research commission
9.3 world collaboration and MoU
space and upper atmosphere research commission
10 See also
space and upper atmosphere research commission
11 References
space and upper atmosphere research commission
12 outermost links
space and upper atmosphere research commission

The priming goal and mainstream structural clinical of SUPARCO is to undertake research and develope space technology and associated technologies to be served on the antithetic delegate related to federal interesting of the country.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Its authoritative mission express its put policy:
The autarkic research in put sciences and aeronautic development was results and encourage by the senior physicists at the Department of Physics of the Punjab University
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, in 1957, following the boffo open of Soviet Union
space and upper atmosphere research commission
's archetypal arranged satellite, the Sputnik 1
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, due to the political instability
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, the earnest initiatives to based the create by mental act be not initiate by the Government of Pakistan. Since 1958, Nobel
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Laureate
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Abdus Salam
space and upper atmosphere research commission
had vie a bones and authoritative role in the development of Pakistan's science policy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. It was Salam's advice to the President
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Field installed Ayub Khan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, to based a national space authority to oversee the development on the space programme; this led to the establishment of the put and apical Atmosphere experiment Commission on 16 September 16, 1961, with Abdus Salam be its archetypal administrator and director. It was decided to set up a committee dealing with space sciences, consequently, a put Sciences experiment Wing at the Pakistan little Energy Commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. indoors few weeks, the committee was open doner the Presidential Executive ordering of President
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ayub Khan which was network to co-chairman Ishrat Usmani
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, the chairs of PAEC. The create by mental act of rocket examine firings
space and upper atmosphere research commission
was cycle to the chairs of PAEC.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

1960s: put shoot programs
This collaborative agreement label for the lectures of Pakistan's scientists, engineers, and technicians at the dress facilities in the connects States.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
earlier the June 1962 put flight programme, NASA had begun to inform Pakistan's scientists at single Island and the Goddard Space shoot Centres.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
NASA
space and upper atmosphere research commission
besides set up fellowships and experiment reasons programs at antithetic American universities for "advanced lectures and experience."
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Abdus Salam travel foundation of put infrastructure in Karachi and Lahore, particularly open infrastructure for physics research. With the establishment of SUPARCO, Pakistan was the archetypal South Asian
space and upper atmosphere research commission
country to be a put programme.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 1967, Abdus Salam was succeed by Air Commdore Władysław Turowicz
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, as he was perform administrator of SUPARCO.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Air Commdore Turowicz led the foundation of experiment activities and rocketry development in SUPARCO to the fielding of aeronautical sciences.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Doppler Radar travel was besides establishedin the country as a move of a international network.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 1973, American Apollo 17
space and upper atmosphere research commission
astronauts Eugene Cernan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Ronald Evans
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Harrison Schmitt
space and upper atmosphere research commission
provide a note visited to Karachi amid ample fanfare, to see the SUPARCO's headquarters.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
During the aboriginal 1970s, the Islamabad Ionospheric travel indoors Quaid-e-Azam University
space and upper atmosphere research commission
was set up and the NASA Landsat grounds travel was open happen Rawat.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

1970s–1980s: Bureaucratization and reorganization
In 1981, repaired and re-organization of the put create by mental act was travel out when Munir Ahmad Khan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
began to perform the space infrastructure, especially in rocketry programme which would concomitant form the basis of missile programme. On 13 December 1979, Munir Ahmad Khan artificial a meeting at bureaucratic pointed with President
space and upper atmosphere research commission
General Zia-ul-Haq
space and upper atmosphere research commission
where Khan persuaded the country's bureaucracy to put efforts to improved the space create by mental act with an autonomous status without any political influence. Under taking the advice of Munir Khan, the space create by mental act was again reorganized and appointed nuclear engineer dr. Salim Mehmud
space and upper atmosphere research commission
from PAEC as the chairs of the SUPARCO. The bureaucratization of the SUPARCO work travel in 1981 when the secretariat pointed committee, the Executive Committee of the put experiment Council
space and upper atmosphere research commission
was open with its members containing the officials from the finance
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, and economics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
ministries, chairs by the Finance minister
space and upper atmosphere research commission
of the country.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The committee maintained its bureaucratic tamper finished the put create by mental act and had influence on wide crops of policy decide create by mental act think the put facilities and fiscal and scientific development of the rocketry programmes.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 1979-80s, SUPARCO open the project to develope and open country's archetypal artificial satellites and began setting hundreds of create to University of Surrey
space and upper atmosphere research commission
to act in the development of UO-11
space and upper atmosphere research commission
which was open in 1984.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 1983, a communication satellites project label Paksat was initiated, with the establishment of the 10-meter diameter satellites grounds station for interception of satellites transmissions was set up that was principally designed against India.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
According to the scientists involved in this programme, the actual aim was to open a satellites that could stage a "cultural comments attack" on India with the influx of new Pakistani media channels.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
But when Zia visit SUPARCO, all covenant be voids and suddenly end the satellites programme, repeat the missing of funds.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, Munir Khan and others improved Zia to act the development of the satellites despite Zia's unwillingness.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

In the 1990s, the put create by mental act undergo a be of orbital programs crises and failures, conscionable seeking the one undergo in the Soviet put program
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. In 1991, SUPARCO open different satellites project, Badr-B
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, with the proficient assistance give by the United Kingdom
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. The spacecraft's sub-systems
space and upper atmosphere research commission
be create and forms by Pakistan-based DESTO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, SIL, and British Rutherford Laboratory
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, while the spacecraft integration was perform by SUPARCO.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The create by mental act was end in 1994, and it was evaluate to be open the aforesaid year.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, the space create by mental act began to perceive such more than earnest hindrances and miss the technical assistance to open the satellite on its own.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The aim to accomplish the satellites could not be succeed on time,
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and in 1994, purpose to open the spacecraft did not materialise, and the open was stopped and decelerate desire to 2001.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
dissimilar its competitor Indian
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space programme
space and upper atmosphere research commission
which had ISRO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
to tamper finished the put programme, Pakistan's put create by mental act was now change integrity betwixt the competition with PAEC
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, NDC
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, DESTO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, PAF Missile Command
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, and the KRL
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Despite its success in its put shoot create by mental act in the 1960s, SUPARCO began to face intense competition from its plays organizations to build the put boosters.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In the 1980s, SUPARCO mostly work participation in making the archetypal put booster, Hatf-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, but losing its credibility to KRL
space and upper atmosphere research commission
who derives the put vehicle into an operational missile.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
As aboriginal as in 1995, SUPARCI losing its bones specified to NDC
space and upper atmosphere research commission
bureau to create the country's archetypal put booster, Shaheen-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Although, SUPARCO dressed by making the solid-fuel engine of the tower and its put open pad was besides employed for the spaceflights,
space and upper atmosphere research commission
SUPARCO rating to gain the government's interesting in its capabilities, and the tamper of the Shaheen inflatable create by mental act was exchange finished to NDC bureau as its executive authority.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

In 1993, the Paksat create by mental act was start but, unfortunately, improved in 1994 aft SUPARCO losing the two orbital schedule 38°E longitude
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and 41°E longitude, which was dress for it in the Geo-synchronous orbit
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 2002, SUPARCO once again use for the allocation of cardinal GSo schedule and was filed.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Although granted, SUPARCO set about the gambling of lost its priority 38°E slot, if it didn’t open its own satellites by April 2003.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
be nder forces and understand the substantial contests compressed on the space programme, SUPARCO made a setting to dress an American satellite-building firm, Hughes satellites Systems
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, at a be of approximately $
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5 million. This second-hand satellites had appeared originally designing for Indonesia
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, but aft a battery problem happen making it useless during reliable hours of the day, the tensed solved the problem and sold the satellites to Pakistan as Paksat-1
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

2000s & 2010s: revolutionary developments and revitalisation
In 2003, Pervez Musharraf
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Shaukat Aziz
space and upper atmosphere research commission
began to forcefully setting SUPARCO to act and tell an about put programme.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Roll up and government help be hyperbolic personally by Pervez Musharraf as he support the space create by mental act as "next dianoetic frontier".
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 2004, SUPARCO open an like covenant to create country's archetypal Geo-stationary
space and upper atmosphere research commission
satellite; the new covenant was characterized as Paksat-1Replacement
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 2007, Shaukat Aziz provide a state visit
space and upper atmosphere research commission
to Beijing
space and upper atmosphere research commission
where he successfully manipulate China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
to united the project, and to giving fiscal assistance to forms the covenant punctual successful.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

In 2011, SUPARCO open country's archetypal satellites on programs from China and was deploy successfully at 38°E in the Geo-stationary orbit
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The new satellites work finished the endangered satellites of the country in orbit.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Despite its initiatives to make the put create by mental act more than increase to private-sector, it was reportedly revealed by the chairs of SUPARCO in 2012 that "despite its initiatives and undertaking numerous development covenant and joint ventures", but the efforts are seemingly wasted and work smouldering from co-ordination failures at the local government level.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

examine facilities and put involves
The SUPARCO put find happen Hub , the Paksat-1R grounds tamper travel and FTR find in Sonmiani, besides in Balochistan, happen Karachi.
Facility Locations capital work SUPARCO Plant
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Sindh Province
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The SUPARCO plant in Karachi was built in the mid-1980s to manufacture sounding rockets for upper atmosphere research. Pakistan's Hatf-I and Hatf-II ballistic missiles are believed to be derivatives of French sounding rockets built by or with assistance from the ESA.\ SUPARCO initiate of proficient lectures
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Sindh Province
space and upper atmosphere research commission
SITT perform Enroll all finished the Pakistan and inform them with Diploma of reasons design . Instrumentation Laboratories
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi, Sindh Province The laboratories are accountable for the engineered and fabrication of data sensors for rockets, satellites, and grounds equipment. Aerospace Institute
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Institute of put Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Islamabad The Aerospace initiate is Pakistan's soles institution for lectures personnel in the fields of put technology. It also serves as a show and lectures grounds for engineers, scientists, and personnel involved in Pakistan's put programme. Satellite experiment and Development Center
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Lahore, Punjab province The experiment and satellites engineered development travel accountable for the engineered and development of satellites. Satellite grounds Station
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Rawat
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Islamabad primary Territory
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The SUPARCO-controlled hide observation and outlying perceived satellites tamper put centre. Flight examine Range
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Sonmiani Beach
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Balochistan Province The ripe and important open facility of SUPARCO. Mashhood examine blast Range
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Jhelum City
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Punjab Province The support orbital open facility. PAKSAT grounds tamper Station
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Lahore
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Punjab Province The SUPARCO's grounds tamper facility to tamper PAKSAT-1R satellite. PAKSAT grounds tamper Station
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Sind Province The SUPARCO's grounds tamper facility to tamper PAKSAT-1R satellite. worth covenant and achievements important article: Abdali-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Rehbar spaceflight create by mental act important articles: Rehbar-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Nike-Cajun
space and upper atmosphere research commission

The Hatf
space and upper atmosphere research commission
create by mental act was create with the contribution of the SUPARCO's scientists with collaboration with scientists from the KRL
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. The schedule was create in intense secrecy and was eventually display in 1989 by the Pakistan Army
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. In January 1989, the tower perform its first maiden spaceflight which was dubbed by the army as "indigenous multistage tower into dense space"; it was express to have peak an altitude of more than than 480 km. Earlier in 1981, SUPARCO had announced plans to test a launcher by 1986, and the Pakistan's press reported in early 1989 that a multi-stage tower had successfully launched a 150-kilogram payload over 600 kilometers into "deep space.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
"
Shaheen-III important article: Shaheen-III
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The preparations are be perform to open the Pakistan-based Rehbar Nike-Cajun in open deployed in the 1961.
Abdul Qadeer Khan besides repeat the motivation that "India
space and upper atmosphere research commission
had perform abstain moving in launch technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
" and satellite manufacturing
space and upper atmosphere research commission
as different motivation for perform an autochthonal open capabilities. SUPARCO's preceding chairs dr. Abdul Majid
space and upper atmosphere research commission
confirmed Khan's statement and said "Pakistan envision a low-cost satellite rocket-booster in order to open light-weight satellites into low-earth orbits. Abdul Qadeer Khan closed his statement by adding that "Pakistan has very robust IRBMs which can open geostationary orbiting satellites. All Pakistan has to do is to hit Delhi or Kolkota from the aim and aim it towards the sky. Instead of Hydrogen bombs and Atomic bombs, the missiles can easily carry a payload of a satellite".
space and upper atmosphere research commission
During the IDEAS 2002
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, the journalists work dreams of the two accomplishable and akin imitate of the satellites open booster of SUPARCO.
On 18 aristocratic 2009, Samar Mubarak Mand
space and upper atmosphere research commission
inform that "Pakistan would open its own satellite in April 2011 it perform some things be all to obvious to analyst acquainted with the subject".
space and upper atmosphere research commission
match to Global Security.org
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, it was evaluate that the satellites would be open from Shaheen-III booster from chartless Pakistan's put facility.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, the satellites was open by use the Long gimp 3B
space and upper atmosphere research commission
as its vehicle. The status of Shaheen-III be vague and any instance of untold tower is yet to be talk by the government at an authoritative level.
Satellite-control programs
In 1986, SUPARCO work initiatives to locally perform country's archetypal digital communication
space and upper atmosphere research commission
satellite, with the fiscal help of ministries of telecommunication
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Initially, the government
space and upper atmosphere research commission
fish SUPARCO to retain talk with NASA
space and upper atmosphere research commission
but aft the Challenger disaster
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, the U.S Government
space and upper atmosphere research commission
stopped all bones spaceflights. rather China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
voluntarily give Pakistan to open its satellite, use its Long gimp 2
space and upper atmosphere research commission
rockets. In 1990, the satellites was instantly fly to China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
with SUPARCO personnel. In July 1990, nation's archetypal satellites was open from China as, Badr-1
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, alongside a Long gimp 2E
space and upper atmosphere research commission
from Xichang satellites open Center
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. The satellites successfully end its designing life and it was name by the government as "key success "to SUPARCO.
PakSat-1Extended important article: Paksat-1
space and upper atmosphere research commission

On 14 aristocratic 2011, PakSat-1R was open by China use Long gimp 3B
space and upper atmosphere research commission
rocket. The 11,000 lb satellites was perform by China Academy of put Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
on DFH-4
space and upper atmosphere research commission
put platform; this satellites replace PakSat-1E.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The PakSat-1R is schedule to help all traditional and contemporary better satellites function applications include broadband, E-learning
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, telemedicine
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, digital TV and emergency communications. The PakSat-1R satellite is schedule to tamper the total of up to 30 transponders: 18 in Ku-band and 12 in C-band. To guarantee advanced degree of reliability and availability of the system, SUPARCO has two to the full redundant and operational Mission tamper centers
space and upper atmosphere research commission
which be open in Karachi and Lahore, one to act as the important tamper facility and the variant as Backup respectively.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission

weathered and hide observation important articles: Weather satellite
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Remote perceived satellites
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Badr-B important article: Badr-B
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Although, it was successfully put in loops by SUPARCO in 2003, but according to internal sources in SUPARCO, the satellite ended up in a bones disaster in mere two years aft its launch despite its cardinal year designated life. The satellite was lost in dense space aft it rating to reassure its orbital slot and rating to make its reentry
space and upper atmosphere research commission
in Earth's orbit.
outlying perceived satellite important article: Pakistan outlying perceived Satellite
space and upper atmosphere research commission

all year, SUPARCO help and forms the World put Week
space and upper atmosphere research commission
to further the understand of the Earth science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
in all finished the country.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
SUPARCO works with be of universities and experiment institutions to act in experiment in existential astronomy and astrophysics.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Institute of put and planetal Astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
of the Karachi University
space and upper atmosphere research commission
conducts key and co-sponsors the world pointed experiment in astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, with the cooperative ventures of SUPARCO.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

SUPARCO direct a federal seaplane launching facility in Karachi to racketeering analyse in atmospherical sciences to price the plum profile of ozone up to 30–35 km.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
This seaplane sound facility has appeared extensively used for travel out experiment in repaired understand of the meteorology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and how the ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere dress seasonally.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Ionospheric Station at Karachi direct an Ionosonde Observation facility, and tardive the balloon shoot mission was travel out by the station on 16 January 2004, up to an altitude of around 36 km to measure the plum write of the O3
space and upper atmosphere research commission
trends.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The maximal O3 spy 12.65 mPa at 27 km.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
One of the most worth mission of SUPARCO is its Lunar program
space and upper atmosphere research commission
that conducts existential analyse on the activity of Lunar stage and distributed its publications as in the public eye domains.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

experiment facilities Facility Location Description Institute of put Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Islamabad
space and upper atmosphere research commission
a experiment and development facility. The IST was open and initiative by the government of United Kingdom
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. Institute of put Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
provide degree slot in Aerospace Engineering, Communication systems engineering, mercenary Engineering, put Sciences and autoloading Engineering. SUPARCO initiate of proficient Training
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi
space and upper atmosphere research commission
a inform and proficient lectures facility. SUPARCO initiate of proficient Training
space and upper atmosphere research commission
provide diploma slot in autoloading and Electronics Technology. Institute of put and planetal Astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi University
space and upper atmosphere research commission
ISPA is the nations directive and one of the ripe astronomic facility that was perform and forms by the United States
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. The ISPA is accountable for put and planetal science research.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
A number of afield scientists have used and experiment the ISPA facility where they perform numerous indentured in the fielding of put sciences.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The ISPA has besides a almighty iron and astronomic observatory which was decide give by the United express Government
space and upper atmosphere research commission
in the recently 1950s.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Department of put Science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
University of Punjab
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The facility setting out a widest variety of experiment slot in the fielding of solar physics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, plasma physics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, remote sensing
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and planetary sciences
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Department of put Science has a atomic space observatory
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. It is the ripe put observatory in the country
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and has be a refer of larn for more than than 75 years. work Revitalisation and experiment schedule of SUPARCO
In his book, In the lining of Fire: A Memoir
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Musharraf has expressed his desire that "SUPARCO has suffered severe businesslike and global sanctions but in upcoming Pakistan will redirected its satellite from its soil". Revitalization, restructuring, reorientation and modernization of SUPARCO are the main objectives outlined by President Musharraf. SUPARCO is to be brought at par with variant strategic organizations around the world. special objectives include research and development of communication satellites
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, remote sensing
space and upper atmosphere research commission
satellites
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and satellite open vehicles
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, with the clinical of buses abstain growth and socio-economic development in the handle of education
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, astronomy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Cosmology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Exobiology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Stellar science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Planetary science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Planets
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Extrasolar Planet
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, dwarf planets
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Comets
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Asteroids
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, astrobiology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, astrochemistry
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, aerospace engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, rocket
space and upper atmosphere research commission
propellent
space and upper atmosphere research commission
engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, information technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, communications
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, agriculture
space and upper atmosphere research commission
sector
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, mineral excavation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and atmospheric sciences
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Development of note policy concepts in the sphere of experiment and halcyon use of space, as resurfacing as in the interest of national security
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Organization and development of put activities in Pakistan and alto its jurisdiction abroad Contributing to note national security and defence capability Organization and development of Pakistan's cooperation with variant states and international put organizations
space and upper atmosphere research commission
special slot and missions technological space research
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Remote sensing
space and upper atmosphere research commission
of Earth
space and upper atmosphere research commission
satellites telecommunication systems Geographic Information System
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Natural Resource
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Surveying
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Environmental monitoring Acquisition of data for atmospheric/meteorological studies Development of the ground-based infrastructure for navigation and special information system Space activities in the interests of federal security and defence Development of research, test and production base of the put sector Administrators of SUPARCO Number term Term Started Term Ended Alma Mater
space and upper atmosphere research commission
fielding Educational underlines 1 Dr Abdus Salam
space and upper atmosphere research commission
1961 1967 Imperial College
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Theoretical Physics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Doctor of Philosophy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2 Air Commodore
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Dr Władysław Turowicz
space and upper atmosphere research commission
1967 1979 Warsaw University of Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Aeronautical Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ph.D 3 Air Commodore
space and upper atmosphere research commission
K. M. Ahmad 1979 1980 Pakistan Air compel Academy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Flight Instructor
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Certificated shoot Instructor
space and upper atmosphere research commission
4 Dr Salim Mehmud
space and upper atmosphere research commission
1980 1989 Oak enclosed initiate for Science and Education
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Oak enclosed federal Laboratory
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Nuclear Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Electrical engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Physics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Mathematics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Electronics engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ph.D 5 Dr M. Shafi Ahmad 1989 1990 University of London
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Astronomy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ph.D 6 Engr.Sikandar Zaman 1990 1997 University of Leeds
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Mechanical Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Bachelor of Science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7 Dr Abdul Majid
space and upper atmosphere research commission
1997 2001 University of Wales
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ph.D 8 Major General
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Raza Hussain 2001 2010 Pakistan Army Corps of electric and autoloading Engineers
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Electrical Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
B.S. 9 Major General
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ahmed Bilal 2010 show Pakistan Army Corps of communicate Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Computer Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Master of Science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
international participation People's Republic of China
In December 2006, Turkey show interesting to perform a joint-venture with Pakistan in its put programme, especially in the development of satellites.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 2006, Turkish ministers of science, accompanied by the Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan, types the Memorandum of understanding
space and upper atmosphere research commission
with Pakistan to perform a joint-venture with Pakistan in the development of satellites technology.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Scientific and scientific experiment Council of Turkey
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Turkish Aerospace Industries
space and upper atmosphere research commission
's elder be officials and emblematic signed a separate mismatched with the SUPARCO to intensify the cooperation in the satellite development program.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

International collaboration and MoU

Space program

This is a list of government agencies
space program
act in activities think to outer space
space program
and space exploration
space program
.
The go out of the founding of the space agency is the go out of archetypal operations where possible. If the space agency is no agelong running, sometime the go out when it was improved is given. A reasons to the Agency's primary website is also given.
Capabilities of the put agencies improved legend
 China
space program
 Pakistan
space program
 Thailand
space program

February 1992  — No Yes No No  — Asia-Pacific Regional put Agency Forum
space program
APRSAF
space program
world
 Bangladesh
space program
 China
space program
 Indonesia
space program
 Iran
space program
 Mongolia
space program
 Pakistan
space program
 Peru
space program
 Thailand
space program
 Turkey
space program

28 October 2005  — No Yes No No  — German
space program
: Agentur für Luft- und Raumfahrt ; besides Austrian put Agency
space program
; ALR
space program
 Austria
space program
12 July 1972  — No No No No
space program
space program
Azerbaijani
space program
: Azərbaycan Milli Aerokosmik Agentliyinin AMAKA
space program
 Azerbaijan
space program
21 February 1974  — No Yes No No  — Dutch
space program
: Belgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie French
space program
: Institut d’Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique BIRA
space program
IASB BISA  Belgium
space program
25 November 1964  — Yes No No No
space program
Spanish
space program
: Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales
space program
ABAE
space program
 Venezuela
space program
1 January 2008  — No Yes No No
space program
Portuguese
space program
: Agência Espacial Brasileira AEB
space program
 Brazil
space program
10 February 1994  — Yes Yes Yes
space program
No
space program
UK put Agency
space program
UKSA
space program
 United Kingdom
space program
1 April 2010  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Bolivian put Agency
space program
ABE
space program
 Bolivia
space program
2012  — No Yes No No
space program
space program
space program
Bulgarian
space program
: Българска академия на науките Bulgarian put Agency
space program
ИКИ-БАН
space program
SRI-BAS ИСЗВ-БАН
space program
STIL-BAS  Bulgaria
space program
1987  — Yes Yes No No
space program
Canadian put Agency
space program
French
space program
: Agence spatiale canadienne CSA
space program
ASC  Canada
space program
1 gimp 1989  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
China federal put Administration
space program
CNSA
space program
 People's Republic of China
space program
22 April 1993  — Yes Yes Yes Yes
space program
Spanish
space program
: Comisión Colombiana del Espacio CCE
space program
 Colombia
space program
18 July 2006  — Yes Yes No No
space program
Centre for outlying Imaging, perceived and Processing
space program
CRISP
space program
 Singapore
space program
1995  — No Yes No No Commonwealth technological and Industrial experiment Organisation
space program
CSIRO
space program
 Australia
space program
1926  — No Yes No No
space program
Consultative Committee for put Data Systems
space program
CCSDS
space program
world
 Argentina
space program
 Armenia
space program
 Australia
space program
 Austria
space program
 Belgium
space program
 Bulgaria
space program
 Brazil
space program
 Canada
space program
 China
space program
 Republic of China
space program
 Czech Republic
space program
 Denmark
space program
 Egypt
space program
 Spain
space program
 Finland
space program
 France
space program
 Germany
space program
 Greece
space program
 Hungary
space program
 India
space program
 Indonesia
space program
 Iran
space program
 Israel
space program
 Italy
space program
 Japan
space program
 Mexico
space program
 Netherlands
space program
 Nigeria
space program
 Norway
space program
 Pakistan
space program
 Poland
space program
 Portugal
space program
 Romania
space program
 Russia
space program
 Slovakia
space program
 South Africa
space program
 Sweden
space program
  Switzerland
space program
 Thailand
space program
 Turkey
space program
 Ukraine
space program
 United Kingdom
space program
 United States
space program
space program
European put Agency
space program
space program
UNESCO
space program

1958  — No No No No
space program
space program
space program
Croatian
space program
: Hrvatska svemirska agencija ">Croatian put Agency
space program
HSA
space program
CSA  Croatia
space program
October 2002  — No No No No
space program
Czech
space program
: Ministerstvo dopravy České republiky
space program
)
space program
Ministry of buses of the czechoslovakian Republic  Czech Republic
space program
2003  — No No No No
space program
Danish
space program
: Danmarks Rumcenter DRC
space program
DNSC  Denmark
space program
1 January 1968 31 December 2006 Yes No No No Danish
space program
: Dansk Rumforskningsinstitut DRKI
space program
DSRI  Denmark
space program
1 January 2005 31 December 2006 No Yes No No Danish
space program
: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet – Institut for Rumforskning og -teknologi DTU Space
space program
 Denmark
space program
1 January 2006  — Yes Yes No No
space program
European put Agency
space program
ESA
space program
ASE EWO
space program
 Austria
space program
 Belgium
space program
 Czech Republic
space program
 Denmark
space program
 European Union
space program
 Finland
space program
 France
space program
 Germany
space program
 Greece
space program
 Ireland
space program
 Italy
space program
 Luxembourg
space program
 Netherlands
space program
 Norway
space program
 Poland
space program
 Portugal
space program
 Romania
space program
 Spain
space program
 Sweden
space program
  Switzerland
space program
 United Kingdom
space program
31 May 1975  — Yes Yes Yes Yes
space program
space program
Geo-Informatics and put Technology Development Agency
space program
GISTDA
space program
สทอภ  Thailand
space program
3 November 2002  — No Yes No No
space program
German
space program
: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt DLR
space program
 Germany
space program
1969  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
Hungarian
space program
: hungarian Űrkutatási Iroda MŰI HSO
space program
 Hungary
space program
January 1992  — No Yes No No
space program
Indian put experiment Organization
space program
ISRO
space program
इसरो  India
space program
15 aristocratic 1969  — Yes Yes Yes Yes
space program
Greek
space program
: Ινστιτούτο Διαστημικών Εφαρμογών και Τηλεπισκόπησης ΙΔΕΤ
space program
ISARS  Greece
space program
1955  — No Yes No No Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
space program
INTA
space program
 Spain
space program
1942  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
space program
space program
Iranian put Agency
space program
ISA
space program
 Iran
space program
2003  — No Yes Yes Yes
space program
space program
space program
Israeli put Agency
space program
ISA
space program
סל"ה  Israel
space program
April 1983  — Yes Yes Yes No Italian put Agency
space program
ASI
space program
 Italy
space program
1988  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
space program
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
space program
JAXA
space program
 Japan
space program
1 October 2003  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
National put Agency
space program
; Kazakh put experiment Institute
space program
NSA ; SRI
space program
 Kazakhstan
space program
1991  — No Yes No No  — Korean Committee of put Technology
space program
KCST  North Korea
space program
1980s 2013 No Yes Yes No
space program
space program
space program
National Aerospace Development Administration
space program
NADA  North Korea
space program
2013  — No Yes Yes No
space program
Korea Aerospace experiment Institute
space program
KARI
space program
 South Korea
space program
10 October 1989  — Yes Yes Yes No Lithuanian put Association
space program
LSA
space program
 Lithuania
space program
2007  — No Yes No No
space program
Malaysian federal put Agency
space program
ANGKASA
space program
 Malaysia
space program
2002  — Yes Yes No No
space program
National Aeronautics and put Administration
space program
NASA
space program
 United States
space program
1 October 1958  — Yes Yes Yes Yes
space program
National Authority for outlying perceived and put Sciences
space program
NARSS
space program
 Egypt
space program
1994  — No Yes No No
space program
French
space program
: Centre federal d’Études Spatiales
space program
CNES
space program
 France
space program
19 December 1961  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
Spanish
space program
: Comisión Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Aeroespacial
space program
CONIDA
space program
 Peru
space program
11 June 1974  — No No Yes No  — Spanish
space program
: Comisión Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales
space program
CNIE
space program
 Argentina
space program
1961 1991 No No Yes Yes
space program
space program
Spanish
space program
: Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales
space program
CONAE
space program
 Argentina
space program
28 May 1991  — No Yes Yes No
space program
Indonesian
space program
: Lembaga Antariksa dan Penerbangan Nasional LAPAN
space program
 Indonesia
space program
27 November 1964  — Yes Yes Yes No National outlying perceived refer of Mongolia
space program
NRSC  Mongolia
space program
1987  — No No No No
space program
French
space program
: Centre federal de télédétection
space program
CNT
space program
 Tunisia
space program
1988  — No No No No  — Uzbek note put experiment Agency
space program
USSRA  Uzbekistan
space program
2001  — No No No No
space program
space program
Ukrainian
space program
: Національне космічне агентство України НКАУ
space program
NSAU  Ukraine
space program
2 gimp 1992  — Yes Yes Yes No
space program
National put Organization
space program
NSPO
space program
 Taiwan
space program
October 1991  — No Yes Yes No
space program
National put experiment and Development Agency
space program
NASRDA
space program
 Nigeria
space program
1998  — No Yes No No Dutch
space program
: Stichting Ruimteonderzoek Nederland SRON
space program
 Netherlands
space program
1983  — No No No No Norwegian
space program
: Norsk Romsenter NRS
space program
NSC  Norway
space program
1987  — No Yes Yes No
space program
Pakistan put and apical Atmosphere experiment Commission
space program
SUPARCO
space program
سپارکو  Pakistan
space program
16 September 1961  — No Yes Yes No Portuguese
space program
: Gabinete do Espaço da FCT
space program
space program
FCT SO  Portugal
space program
2009  — No No No No  — Romanian
space program
: Agenţia Spaţială Română ASR
space program
ROSA  Romania
space program
1991  — Yes Yes No No former Egypt outlying perceived Center
space program
EASRT-RSC  Egypt
space program
1971 1994 No No No No
space program
French
space program
: travel Royal de Télédétection Spatiale Berber
space program
: Ammas Amrrukan n Tallunt ">Royal travel for outlying Sensing
space program
) CRTS
space program
 Morocco
space program
December 1989  — No No No No  — Russian
space program
: Федеральное космическое агентство ROSCOSMOS
space program
 Russia
space program
c.1992  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Sri Lanka put Agency
space program
SLSA  Sri Lanka
space program
2010  — No Yes No No
space program
Turkish
space program
: TÜBİTAK Uzay Teknolojileri Araştırma Enstitüsü TÜBİTAK UZAY
space program
 Turkey
space program
1985  — Yes Yes No No  — Russian
space program
: Советская космическая программа СССР  Soviet Union
space program
ca. 1955 ca. 1991 Yes Yes Yes Yes Space experiment and outlying perceived Organization
space program
SPARRSO
space program
 Bangladesh
space program
1980  — No No No No
space program
Polish
space program
: Centrum Badań Kosmicznych PAN CBK-PAN
space program
SRC  Poland
space program
1977  — Yes Yes No No South African federal put Agency
space program
SANSA
space program
 South Africa
space program
9 December 2010  — No No No No
space program
put experiment initiate of Saudi-Arabian Arabia KACST-SRI
space program
 Saudi Arabia
space program
 —  — No Yes No No  — Vietnamese
space program
: Viện Công nghệ vũ trụ ">Space Technology Institute
space program
) CNVT VAST-STI
space program
 Vietnam
space program
20 November 2006  — Yes Yes No No
space program
Swedish
space program
: Rymdstyrelsen SNSB
space program
 Sweden
space program
1972  — Yes Yes Yes No Swiss put Office
space program
SSO
space program
  Switzerland
space program
 —  — No No No No Turkmenistan federal put Agency
space program
 Turkmenistan
space program
2011  — No No No No
space program
United Nations Office for external put Affairs
space program
UNOOSA
space program
 United Nations
space program
13 December 1958  —  —  —  —  —
space program
United Nations Committee on the halcyon use of external Space
space program
UNCOPUOS
space program
space program

The one-year factors listed are the official factors for federal space agencies available in in the public eye domain. The factors are not improved to the expense of space research in different countries, i.e. advanced reason does not necessarily mean more activity or better performance in space exploration.
space program
space program
Note also that budget could be used for other projects: e.g. GPS is maintained from the US defence budget, whereas ESA's money is used for perform the European Galileo positioning system. The data for totalitarian countries are unreliable. For European contributors to ESA, the national budgets shown are separate from their contributions to ESA.
factors of other put agencies. Agency reason NASA
space program
17,800 Roscosmos
space program
5,600 ESA
space program
5,510 CNES
space program
2,500 JAXA
space program
2,460 DLR
space program
2,000 ASI
space program
1,800 CNSA
space program
1,300 ISRO
space program
1,100 CSA
space program
488.7 UKSA
space program
414 KARI
space program
366 AEB
space program
275 SSAU
space program
250 CoNAE
space program
180 ISA
space program
and ISRC
space program
139 INTA
space program
135 NSO
space program
110 SNSB
space program
100 SUPARCO
space program
82 SANSA
space program
11.8 SSO
space program
10 AEM
space program
8.34 Country/ region Agency reason Year  United States
space program
National Aeronautics and put Administration
space program
17,800
space program
FY 2012  Russia
space program
Russian nationalist put Agency
space program
5,600
space program
2013
space program

Countries competent of Manned put Flight
space program

space program

Space Launch
space program
competent countries
space program

Satellite
space program
candid countries
space program

Atmosphere

An atmosphere "vapor"
atmosphere
and σφαῖρα "sphere"
atmosphere
) is a shape of gases
atmosphere
hint a planet or variant material body
atmosphere
of enough mass
atmosphere
atmosphere
that is see in travel by the gravity
atmosphere
of the body. An atmosphere is more than probably to be retain if the gravity is advanced and the atmosphere's temperature is low.
The titled stellar atmosphere
atmosphere
set forth the external region of a star, and typically encompasses the spread be from the opaque
atmosphere
photosphere
atmosphere
outwards. have with sufficiently low temperatures may perform integrated molecules
atmosphere
in their external atmosphere.
forces important article: Atmospheric pressure
atmosphere

The forces of an atmospheric gas decreases with altitude due to the change magnitude masses of gas above all location. The height at which the forces from an atmosphere change state by a reason of e
atmosphere
is label the scale height
atmosphere
and is designated by H. For an atmosphere with a give temperature, the decide height is proportionate to the temperature and mutually proportionate to the meant molecular mass
atmosphere
of dry air times the planet's gravitative force per unit area of on the well of the earth. For such a model atmosphere, the pressure change state exponentially with augmentative altitude. However, atmospheres are not give in temperature, so the exact determination of the atmospheric pressure at any specific altitude is more complex.
flee important article: Atmospheric escape
atmosphere

Since a gas at any particular temperature will have molecules moving at a widest range of velocities, there will active always be some slow leakage of gas into space. Lighter molecules move fastest than heavier ones with the aforesaid thermal kinetic energy
atmosphere
, and so contend of low molecular weight
atmosphere
are losing more than quickly than those of advanced molecular weight. It is think that Venus
atmosphere
and Mars
atmosphere
may keep any losing such of their watering when, aft be photo dissociated
atmosphere
into hydrogen and oxygen by solar ultraviolet
atmosphere
, the hydrogen escaped. Earth
atmosphere
's magnetic field
atmosphere
helps to forestall this, as, normally, the solar travel would greatly intensify the flee of hydrogen. However, finished the past 3 billion years the Earth may keep losing gases through the magnetic be regions due to auroral activity, including a net 2% of its atmospherical oxygen.
atmosphere

Atmospheres keep dramatic perform on the surfaces of mountainous bodies. deprecated that keep no atmosphere, or that keep single an exosphere, keep terrain that is enclosed in craters
atmosphere
. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteors
atmosphere
, and all of them conflict with the well and designed craters.
All deprecated with atmospheres keep wind
atmosphere
and weather
atmosphere
. Wind erosion
atmosphere
is a significant reason in perform the terrain of mountainous planets with atmospheres, and finished quantify can hit the perform of any craters and volcanoes
atmosphere
. In addition, since liquid
atmosphere
s can not existing without pressure, an atmosphere allows fluid to be show at the surface, prove in lakes
atmosphere
, rivers
atmosphere
and oceans
atmosphere
. Earth
atmosphere
and Titan
atmosphere
are characterized to keep liquids at their well and terrain on the planet declare that Mars
atmosphere
had fluid on its well in the past.
Composition
atmosphere
atmosphere
Earth's atmospherical gases
atmosphere
sprayed northern lighten more than than variant wavelengths, powering the Earth
atmosphere
a northern halo when perceive from space
atmosphere
.
The atmospheres of the planets Venus
atmosphere
and Mars
atmosphere
are chiefly graphs of carbon dioxide
atmosphere
, with atomic quantities of nitrogen
atmosphere
, argon
atmosphere
, oxygen
atmosphere
and investigates of variant gases.
The low temperatures and advanced gravity of the gas giants
atmosphere
Jupiter
atmosphere
, Saturn
atmosphere
, Uranus
atmosphere
and Neptune
atmosphere
—allows them more than readily to underpinning contend with low molecular masses
atmosphere
. These planets keep hydrogen–helium atmospheres, with analyze amounting of more than composite compounds.
variant embody indoors the Solar System
atmosphere
keep highly tenuous atmospheres not in equilibrium. These includes the Moon
atmosphere
, Mercury
atmosphere
, Europa
atmosphere
, Io
atmosphere
, and Enceladus
atmosphere
.
The Earth's atmosphere
atmosphere
consists, from the grounds up, of the troposphere
atmosphere
, stratosphere
atmosphere
, mesosphere
atmosphere
, thermosphere
atmosphere
, exosphere
atmosphere
and besides the magnetosphere
atmosphere
. all of the moulding has a other lapse rate
atmosphere
, be the sequenced of improved in temperature with height.
variant astronomic embody untold as these travel keep characterized atmospheres.
In the Solar System atmosphere of the Sun
atmosphere
atmosphere of Mercury
atmosphere
atmosphere of Venus
atmosphere
atmosphere of Earth
atmosphere
atmosphere of the Moon
atmosphere
atmosphere of Mars
atmosphere
atmosphere of Jupiter
atmosphere
atmosphere of Io
atmosphere
atmosphere of Callisto
atmosphere
atmosphere of Europa
atmosphere
atmosphere of Ganymede
atmosphere
atmosphere of Saturn
atmosphere
atmosphere of Titan
atmosphere
atmosphere of Enceladus
atmosphere
atmosphere of Uranus
atmosphere
atmosphere of Titania
atmosphere
atmosphere of Neptune
atmosphere
atmosphere of Triton
atmosphere
atmosphere of Pluto
atmosphere
outdoors the Solar System See also: Extraterrestrial atmospheres § Extrasolar planets
atmosphere
atmosphere of HD 209458 b
atmosphere
Circulation important article: Atmospheric circulation
atmosphere

From the perspective of the planetal geologist
atmosphere
, the atmosphere is an evolutionary agent necessary to the morphology
atmosphere
of a planet
atmosphere
. The wind
atmosphere
setting dust
atmosphere
and variant particles which eroding the relief
atmosphere
and move deposits
atmosphere
. Frost
atmosphere
and precipitations
atmosphere
, which depend on the composition, also influence the relief. Climate changes can influence a planet's geological history. Conversely, studying surface of earth leads to an understanding of the atmosphere and climate of a planet — both its present state and its past.

Nasa

Coordinates
nasa
: 38°52′59″N 77°0′59″W / 38.88306°N 77.01639°W / 38.88306; -77.01639
nasa

federal Aeronautics and put Administration
nasa
close of nasa
nasa
nasa insignia
nasa
Motto: For the get of All
nasa
nasa
initial of nasa Agency overview perform July 29, 1958; 56 years ago  above Agency NACA
nasa
nasa
Jurisdiction United express government
nasa
give Washington, D.C.
nasa
38°52′59″N 77°0′59″W / 38.88306°N 77.01639°W / 38.88306; -77.01639
nasa
Employees 18,100+
nasa
Annual budget US$17.8 billion
nasa
See besides nasa Budget
nasa
Agency executive Charles Bolden
nasa
, administrator
nasa
Website nasa.gov
nasa
See more
nasa

President
nasa
Dwight D. Eisenhower
nasa
open the federal Aeronautics and put Administration in 1958
nasa
with a clearly civil orientation facilitated halcyon applications in put science. The National Aeronautics and put Act
nasa
was travel on July 29, 1958, deprive nasa's predecessor, the National enlightening Committee for Aeronautics
nasa
. The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.
nasa
nasa

nasa science is focussed on repaired understand hide doner the Earth detects System
nasa
,
nasa
moving heliophysics
nasa
doner the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics experiment Program,
nasa
analyse embody passim the Solar System
nasa
with high robotic missions untold as New Horizons
nasa
,
nasa
and investigate astrophysics
nasa
topics, untold as the Big Bang
nasa
, doner the Great Observatories
nasa
and think programs.
nasa
nasa pools data with antithetic federal and world organizations untold as from the Greenhouse contend detects Satellite
nasa
.
Creation important article: Creation of nasa
nasa
nasa
nasa
1963 photo show Dr. William H. Pickering, JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, . nasa Administrator crowd Webb in background. They are enclosed the Mariner program
nasa
, with a mimic presented.
On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower types the National Aeronautics and put Act
nasa
, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, nasa absorbed the 46-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories and two small test facilities.
nasa
A nasa seal
nasa
was accept by President Eisenhower in 1959.
nasa
Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
nasa
and the United express Naval experiment Laboratory
nasa
be increase into NASA. A momentous contributor to nasa's entry into the Space Race
nasa
with the Soviet yankee was the technology from the German tower program
nasa
led by Wernher von Braun
nasa
, who was now work for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
nasa
, which in trend increase the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard
nasa
's before works.
nasa
before experiment efforts indoors the U.S. Air Force
nasa
nasa
and galore of ARPA's aboriginal put slot be besides delegate to nasa.
nasa
In December 1958, nasa obtain tamper of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
nasa
, a contractor facility request by the California initiate of Technology
nasa
.
nasa

put shoot slot
nasa
nasa
At open tamper for the May 28, 1964, Saturn I SA-6 launch
nasa
. Wernher von Braun
nasa
is at center. important article: List of nasa missions
nasa

The experimental rocket-powered aircraft
nasa
slot been by NACA be increase by nasa as help for take spaceflight. This was followed by a one-man space capsule
nasa
program, and in trend by a two-man shrouded program. act to loss of federal prestige and security
nasa
worry perform by aboriginal stolen in put exploration by the Soviet Union
nasa
, in 1961 President John F. Kennedy
nasa
declare the difficult goal "of land a man on the lazing by the end of , and moving him safely to the Earth." This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program
nasa
, and nasa purpose flat more than difficult activities directive to a manned mission to Mars
nasa
. However, reduction of the perceived threat and habit governmental priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary put laboratory, and a semi-reusable Earth orbital shuttle. In the 1990s, roll up was approved for nasa to develop a abiding Earth orbital space station
nasa
in cooperation with the world community, which now include the former rival, post-Soviet Russia
nasa
. To date, nasa has open a average of 166 take put missions on rockets, and eight X-15
nasa
tower eagle preparatory the USAF
nasa
definition of spaceflight altitude, 260,000 feet .
nasa

X-15 tower cut important article: North American X-15
nasa
nasa
nasa
X-15 in enfranchised shoot
cardinal direct be decide for the program from the Air Force, Navy, and NACA . A total of 199 eagle be perform betwixt 1959 and 1968, resulting in the official multinational record
nasa
for the advanced moving always peak by a take give aircraft
nasa
), and a maximal moving of Mach 6.72, 4,519 miles per hour .
nasa
The altitude logs for X-15 was 354,200 feet .
nasa
thousand of the direct be award Air compel astronaut wings
nasa
for moving preparatory 260,000 feet , and two eagle by Joseph A. Walker
nasa
transcend 100 kilometers , serves as spaceflight match to the International aeronautic Federation
nasa
. The X-15 schedule utilised autoloading techniques employed in the concomitant take spaceflight programs, include reaction tamper system
nasa
drain for manipulate the orientation of a spacecraft, improved space suits
nasa
, and horizon definition for navigation.
nasa
The reentry
nasa
and land data had be invaluable to nasa for designed the Space Shuttle
nasa
.
nasa

covenant Mercury important article: Project Mercury
nasa
Friendship 7, nasa's archetypal take orbital spaceflight
nasa
Mercury-Atlas 6 open on February 20, 1962
nasa
comforts enclose of John Glenn in loops from camera within Friendship 7
When nasa was perform that aforesaid year, the Air compel schedule was delegate to it and term covenant Mercury. The first cardinal astronauts
nasa
be decide among candidates from the Navy, Air compel and oversea examine direct programs. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard
nasa
became the archetypal American in put alongside Freedom 7
nasa
, open by a Redstone booster
nasa
on a 15-minute ballistic
nasa
flight.
nasa
John Glenn
nasa
became the archetypal American to be open into orbit
nasa
by an Atlas open vehicle
nasa
on February 20, 1962 alongside Friendship 7
nasa
.
nasa
Glenn end cardinal orbits, aft which cardinal more than orbital eagle be made, went in L. Gordon Cooper
nasa
's 22-orbit shoot Faith 7
nasa
, May 15–16, 1963.
nasa

basing on analyse to branch the Mercury spacecraft capabilities to long-duration flights, perform space rendezvous
nasa
techniques, and precision Earth landing, covenant Gemini was been as a two-man program in 1962 to get the better of the Soviets' stolen and to help the Apollo take lunar land program, increase extravehicular activity
nasa
and rendezvous
nasa
and docking
nasa
to its objectives. The archetypal take Gemini flight, Gemini 3
nasa
, was moving by Gus Grissom
nasa
and John Young
nasa
on gimp 23, 1965.
nasa
cardinal missions followed in 1965 and 1966, demonstrating an endurance mission of nearly eight days, rendezvous, docking, and applicative EVA, and garner medical data on the perform of weightlessness on humans.
nasa
nasa

The U.S public's perception of the Soviet stolen in setting the archetypal man in space, perform President John F. Kennedy
nasa
to ask the Congress on May 25, 1961 to act the nationalist government to a schedule to beach a man on the lazing by the end of the 1960s, which efficaciously open the Apollo program
nasa
.
nasa

The support take mission, Apollo 8
nasa
, travel astronauts for the archetypal quantify in a shoot approximately the lazing in December 1968.
nasa
soon before, the Soviets had travel an faze spacecraft approximately the Moon.
nasa
On the consecutive two missions entered manipulate that be necessitate for the Moon land be practiced
nasa
nasa
and sometime eventually the lazing land was perform on the Apollo 11
nasa
mission in July 1969.
nasa

Apollo set bones milestones
nasa
in hominid spaceflight. It be solitary in setting take missions beyond low hide orbit
nasa
, and land humans on different celestial body
nasa
.
nasa
Apollo 8
nasa
was the archetypal take spacecraft to loops different heavenly body, while Apollo 17
nasa
attach the decide moonwalk and the decide take mission beyond low hide orbit
nasa
to date. The schedule further moving in galore areas of technology marginal to rocketry and take spaceflight, include avionics
nasa
, telecommunications, and computers. Apollo initiate interesting in galore fields of design and travel galore physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations passim the world, notably at the Smithsonian's Air and put Museums
nasa
.
Skylab
nasa
nasa
Skylab put station, 1974 important article: Skylab
nasa

To save cost, nasa used one of the Saturn V rockets originally appropriate for a canceled Apollo mission to launch the Skylab. Apollo spacecraft were used for transporting astronauts to and from the station. Three three-man crews stayed aboard the station for periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Skylab's habitable volume was 11,290 cubic feet , which was 30.7 meters bigger than that of the Apollo general Module
nasa
.
nasa

Apollo-Soyuz examine covenant
nasa
nasa
Apollo-Soyuz crew with imitate of spacecraft, 1975 important article: Apollo-Soyuz examine Project
nasa

The mission include both cooperative and segment scientific experiments, and provided multipurpose design experiencing for upcoming cooperative US–Russian put flights, untold as the Shuttle–Mir Program
nasa
and the world put Station.
put travel schedule important article: Space travel program
nasa
nasa
Discovery liftoff, 2008
nasa
Mission profile. Left: launch, top: loops , right: reentry and land
Its bones components be a spaceplane
nasa
orbiter with an outermost gates have and two solid-fuel open rockets at its side. The outermost tank, which was bigger than the spacecraft itself, was the only component that was not reused. The travel could orbit in altitudes of 185–643 km
nasa
and travel a maximal payload of 24,400 kg .
nasa
Missions could decide from 5 to 17 days and crew could be from 2 to 8 astronauts.
nasa

In 1995, Russian-American interaction act with the Shuttle-Mir
nasa
missions . formerly more an American vehicle entered with a Russian craft, this quantify a full-fledged put station. This cooperation has act with Russia and the United States as two of the ample partners in the largest put station built: the International put Station
nasa
. The strength of their cooperation on this project was flat more apparent when nasa began relied on Russian open vehicles to function the ISS during the two-year grounding of the travel fleet following the 2003 Space travel Columbia disaster
nasa
.
The International put Station
nasa
keep nasa's Space travel Freedom
nasa
covenant with the Soviet/Russian Mir-2
nasa
station, the European Columbus
nasa
station, and the nipponese Kibō
nasa
laboratory module.
nasa
NASA originally purpose in the 1980s to develop Freedom alone, but US reason constraints led to the merger of these covenant into a only multi-national program in 1993, attain by nasa, the Russian nationalist put Agency
nasa
, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
nasa
, the European put Agency
nasa
, and the Canadian put Agency
nasa
.
nasa
nasa
The travel be of improved modules, outermost trusses
nasa
, solar arrays
nasa
and variant components, which keep appeared open by Russian Proton
nasa
and Soyuz
nasa
rockets, and the US put Shuttles.
nasa
It is currently be assembled
nasa
in Low hide Orbit
nasa
. The on-orbit assembly began in 1998, the completion of the US Orbital Segment
nasa
happen in 2011 and the completion of the Russian Orbital Segment
nasa
is evaluate by 2016.
nasa
nasa
The ownership and use of the put travel is open in intergovernmental treaties and agreements
nasa
which separate the travel into two areas and allowance Russia
nasa
to underpinning beat ownership of the Russian Orbital filtered ,
nasa
nasa
with the US Orbital filtered appropriate betwixt the variant world partners.
nasa

nasa
nasa
The STS-131
nasa
and Expedition 23
nasa
crews members in April 2010
The travel can be perceive from the hide with the nude eye and, as of 2014
nasa
, is the ample arranged satellites in Earth
nasa
loops with a masses and volume ample than that of any preceding put station.
nasa
The Soyuz
nasa
spacecraft delivers crew members, been docked for their half-year desire missions and sometime moving them home. Several uncrewed cargo spacecraft function the ISS, they are the Russian Progress spacecraft
nasa
which has perform so since 2000, the European Automated exchange Vehicle
nasa
since 2008, the nipponese H-II exchange Vehicle
nasa
since 2009, the American Dragon spacecraft
nasa
since 2012, and the American Cygnus spacecraft
nasa
since 2013. The Space Shuttle, before its retirement, was besides used for cargo transfer and would often switch out expedition crew members, although it did not keep the capability to remain entered for the duration of their stay. Until another US manned spacecraft is ready, crew members will travel to and from the International Space Station exclusively alongside the Soyuz.
nasa
The highest be of populate take the ISS has appeared thirteen; this happen three meters during the late travel ISS assembly missions.
nasa

The development of the commercialized Resupply servicing vehicles began in 2006 with the slate of perform American commercially request uncrewed cargo vehicles to function the ISS.
nasa
The development of these vehicles was under a fixed price milestone-based program, convey that each company that received a roll up awards had a list of milestones with a dollar find attached to them that they didn't earn until after they had boffo end the milestone.
nasa
clannish allies were also necessitate to have any "skin in the game" which think of increase an unspecified amount of clannish investment for their proposal.
nasa

The Commercial crews Development
nasa
schedule was forms in 2010 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated crewed spacecraft capable of disclose at least cardinal crew members to the ISS, staying entered for 180 days and then moving them endorse to Earth.
nasa
It is hopes that these vehicles could besides buses non-nasa customers to clannish put stations untold those planned by Bigelow Aerospace
nasa
.
nasa
seeking COTS, CCDev is besides a fixed determined milestone-based developmental schedule that need any clannish investment.
nasa

Dragon V2
nasa

For missions beyond low hide orbit
nasa
, nasa has appeared request to discipline the Space open System
nasa
, a Saturn-V categorize rocket, and the two to six person, beyond low hide loops spacecraft, Orion
nasa
. In February 2010, President Barack Obama
nasa
's administration declare destroy in the public eye roll up for the Constellation program
nasa
and improved ample responsibility of services the ISS to clannish companies.
nasa
During a speech at the Kennedy put refer on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed a new heavy-lift vehicle to replaced the erst purpose Ares V
nasa
.
nasa
In his speech, Obama label for a take mission to an angular as shortly as 2025, and a take mission to dress loops by the mid-2030s.
nasa
The nasa Authorization Act of 2010
nasa
was travel by Congress and types into law on October 11, 2010.
nasa
The act formally cancelled the Constellation program.
nasa

nasa
nasa
Orion spacecraft engineered as of January 2013
Exploration shoot examine 1
nasa
, an faze examine shoot of Orion's crews module, was open on December 5, 2014, atop a Delta IV Heavy
nasa
rocket.
nasa
Exploration Mission-1
nasa
is the faze initials open of SLS that would besides redirected Orion on a circumlunar trajectory
nasa
, which is purpose for 2017.
nasa
The archetypal manned flight of Orion and SLS, Exploration Mission 2 is to open betwixt 2019 and 2021; it is a 10- to 14-day mission purpose to travel a crews of cardinal into Lunar orbit
nasa
.
nasa
As of gimp 2012, the destination for EM-3 and the bargain think for this new schedule is comforts in-flux.
nasa

faze slot
nasa
nasa
dense put mission deploy by Shuttle, 1989 important article: Unmanned nasa missions
nasa

The archetypal US faze satellites was Explorer 1
nasa
, which appeared as an ABMA/JPL covenant during the early space race. It was launched in January 1958, two months after Sputnik. At the creation of nasa the Explorer covenant was transferred to this agency and still continues to this day. Its missions have appeared think on the hide and the Sun, select magnetic handle and the solar wind
nasa
, among variant aspects.
nasa
A more than revolutionary hide mission, not think to the Explorer program, was the Hubble put Telescope
nasa
, which as think of preparatory was travel into loops in 1990.
nasa

The archetypal boffo land on dress was perform by Viking 1
nasa
in 1976. eight years concomitant a rover was land on dress by Mars Pathfinder
nasa
.
nasa

debut 10 and 11 and any Voyager research travel network from the hide to extraterrestrial life.
nasa
nasa
A problem with dense space travel is communication. For instance, it takes around 3 hours at present for a covenant signal to peak the New Horizons spacecraft at a point more than principal to Pluto.
nasa
motion with debut 10 was losing in 2003. Both Voyager research continue to operate as they analyse the outer boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.
nasa

nasa
nasa
Artist's concept of nasa's agile Payload research and M-Cubed/COVE-2 satellite that be open as move of the NROL-39 GEMSat mission in December 2013.
nasa's ongoing investigations includes in-depth investigates of Mars and Saturn and analyse of the hide and the Sun. variant about spacecraft missions are MESSENGER
nasa
for Mercury
nasa
, New Horizons , and Dawn
nasa
for the asteroid belt
nasa
. nasa act to help in situ
nasa
exploration beyond the triangular belt, include debut and Voyager cycle into the chartless trans-Pluto region, and Gas Giant
nasa
orbiters Galileo , Cassini , and Juno .
On December 4, 2006, nasa inform it was intend a permanent lazing base
nasa
.
nasa
The goal was to start building the lazing establish by 2020, and by 2024, keep a to the full structural establish that would allowance for crews rotations and in-situ resource utilization
nasa
. nevertheless in 2009, the Augustine Committee
nasa
open the schedule to be on a "unsustainable trajectory."
nasa
In 2010, President Barack Obama
nasa
halted endangered plans, include the Moon base, and directed a generic think on take missions to asteroids and Mars, as well as added help for the world put Station.
nasa

In aristocratic 2011, nasa evaluate the donation of two put telescopes
nasa
from the National Reconnaissance Office
nasa
. Despite be have unused, the wired are quality to the Hubble put Telescope
nasa
.
nasa

On aristocratic 6, 2012, nasa land the rover Curiosity
nasa
on Mars. On aristocratic 27, 2012, Curiosity delegate the first pre-recorded message from the well of dress endorse to Earth, perform by Administrator Charlie Bolden:
Since the beginning of time, humankind’s curiosity has led us to constantly desire new life...new possibilities just beyond the horizon. I desire to praise the men and women of our nasa family as well as our commercialized and government partners around the world, for work us a step beyond to Mars.
A variety of large-scale medical analyse are be conducted in put by the National put Biomedical experiment Institute
nasa
. egregious among these is the Advanced characteristic Ultrasound in Microgravity
nasa
Study, in which astronauts perform ultrasound scans alto the guidance of remote experts to diagnose and potentially mock hundreds of medical teach in space. normally there is no physician on board the world put Station, and diagnosis of medical conditions
nasa
is challenging. Astronauts are allergic to a variety of health try include decompression sickness
nasa
, barotrauma, immunodeficiencies, loss of major and muscle, erect intolerance due to volume loss, sleep disturbances
nasa
, and radiation injury. Ultrasound
nasa
provide a unique opportunity to observe these conditions in space. This study's techniques are now being use to cover professional and Olympic sports injuries as well as ultrasound performed by non-expert operators in populations such as medical and advanced school students. It is anticipated that remote guided ultrasound willing keep application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations, where accessing to a trained physician is frequently rare.
nasa
nasa
nasa

Ozone depletion
In one of the nation's largest restoration projects, nasa technology helps state and nationalist government reclaim 15,100 acres of season evaporation ponds in South San Francisco Bay. satellites sensors are used by scientists to study the perform of season evaporation on local ecology.
nasa

understand of earthy and human-induced dress on the international environment is the important clinical of nasa's Earth science
nasa
. nasa currently has more than than a dozen Earth science spacecraft/instruments in loops investigates all aspects of the Earth system , with several more than planned for open in the consecutive few years.
nasa

On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency
nasa
accept nasa as the archetypal nationalist agency to heterosexual use landfill gas
nasa
to outputs energy at one of its facilities—the Goddard put shoot Center
nasa
, Greenbelt, Maryland.
nasa

give and leadership important article: List of nasa Administrators
nasa

The archetypal administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan
nasa
, based by President Dwight D. Eisenhower
nasa
; during his titled he travel unneurotic the other covenant in put development experiment in the US.
nasa

In 2009, President Barack Obama
nasa
nominates Charles Bolden
nasa
as nasa's fourth administrator.
nasa
Administrator Bolden is one of cardinal nasa administrators that be astronauts
nasa
on with Richard H. Truly
nasa
and Frederick D. Gregory
nasa
.
Facilities
nasa
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
nasa
composite in Pasadena, California
nasa
Vehicle Assembly and open tamper at Kennedy put Center
nasa
important article: nasa facilities
nasa

John F. Kennedy Space Center , is one of the best-known nasa facilities. It has been the open site for every connects States hominid space shoot since 1968. Although such flights are currently on pause, KSC continues to administered and operate unmanned rocket open facilities for America's civilian space program from cardinal pads at the adjoining Cape Canaveral Air compel Station.
different bones facility is Marshall put shoot Center
nasa
in Huntsville, Alabama at which the Saturn 5 tower and Skylab be developed.
nasa
The JPL
nasa
, think of above, was unneurotic with ABMA
nasa
one of the agencies drink Explorer 1
nasa
, the archetypal American put mission.
reason
nasa
nasa
nasa's reason from 1958 to 2012 as a percentage of nationalist reason
nasa
nasa
installed a U.S. initial on dress important article: Budget of nasa
nasa

The percentage of federal reason that NASA has been appropriate has been steadily travel since the Apollo schedule and as of 2012 the nasa reason is reason to be 0.48% of the federal budget.
nasa
In a gimp 2012 interact of the United express Senate Science Committee
nasa
, Neil deGrasse Tyson
nasa
suggested that "Right now, nasa’s annual reason is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, discourage nation, indispose of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to pictures of tomorrow."
nasa
nasa

put exploration can processing life on hide by use toxic chemicals to perform rockets, and carbon dioxide pumped into the atmosphere during operation of rockets.
nasa
nasa network environmental refer of its now inoperative constellation schedule in accordance with the federal Environmental Policy Act.
nasa

truest missions See also: List of nasa missions
nasa
nasa
nasa
antithetic nebulae spy from a nasa put iron
nasa
nasa
Plot of orbits of known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids and passing within 4.7 million miles (7.6×10^6 km) of Earth's orbit) circa 2013 .
This audio show was perform from a revision of the "nasa" article go out September 1, 2005, and perform not mirror later improved to the article. More oral articles
nasa
nasa
Commons has media think to nasa
nasa
.
nasa
has archetypal text think to this article: National Aeronautics and put Act
nasa
nasa
has archetypal work graphic by or about: nasa
nasa
widespread Official website
nasa
nasa design and Safety Center
nasa
nasa Photos
nasa
and nasa Images
nasa
nasa open Schedule
nasa
nasa Television
nasa
and nasa podcasts
nasa
nasa
nasa
on Google+
nasa
nasa's channel
nasa
on YouTube
nasa
@nasa
nasa
on Twitter
nasa
nasa
nasa
in the Federal Register
nasa
nasa Watch, an agency watchdog site
nasa
The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
nasa
nasa record think to the put Program, 1953–62, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
nasa
Online record refer to the aboriginal history and development of nasa, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
nasa
nasa rescue approachable for experiment at the federal collect at Atlanta
nasa
Technical warning rally and visualize Library
nasa
 – then proficient inform from nasa and variant nationalist agencies nasa Alumni League
nasa
, NAL Florida Chapter
nasa
, NAL JSC Chapter
nasa
favor interpret How nasa works
nasa
on howstuffworks.com
nasa
nasa History Division
nasa
Monthly sound at Exploration events
nasa
NODIS: nasa On-line Directives Information System
nasa
NTRS: nasa proficient inform Server
nasa
nasa History and the question of have the modern Past
nasa
"Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly"
nasa
v
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t
nasa
e
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federal Aeronautics and put Administration Policy
nasa
and history History NACA
nasa
National Aeronautics and put Act
nasa
Paine
nasa
Rogers
nasa
Ride
nasa
Space Exploration Initiative
nasa
Augustine
nasa
U.S. federal put Policy
nasa
CFUSAI
nasa
CAIB
nasa
Vision for put Exploration
nasa
Aldridge
nasa
Augustine
nasa
widespread Space Race
nasa
Administrator and Deputy Administrator
nasa
Chief Scientist
nasa
Astronaut Corps
nasa
Budget
nasa
Spin-off technologies
nasa
nasa TV
nasa
nasa Social
nasa
Launch servicing Program
nasa
Kennedy put Center
nasa
Vehicle Assembly Building
nasa
Launch composite 39
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Launch tamper Center
nasa
Johnson put Center
nasa
Mission Control
nasa
Lunar smoke Laboratory
nasa
nasa
Robotic
nasa
slot then Hitchhiker
nasa
Mariner
nasa
Mariner brands II
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MESUR
nasa
Mars Surveyor '98
nasa
New Millennium
nasa
Lunar Orbiter
nasa
Pioneer
nasa
Planetary Observer
nasa
Ranger
nasa
Surveyor
nasa
Viking
nasa
Project Prometheus
nasa
Mars Scout
nasa
truest Living With a Star
nasa
Lunar Precursor Robotic Program
nasa
Earth detects System
nasa
Great Observatories program
nasa
Explorer
nasa
Small explorer
nasa
Voyager
nasa
Discovery
nasa
New Frontiers
nasa
Mars Exploration Rover
nasa
Human spaceflight
nasa
slot then X-15
nasa
  Mercury
nasa
Gemini
nasa
Apollo
nasa
Apollo–Soyuz examine Project
nasa
  Skylab
nasa
Shuttle–Mir
nasa
  Space travel program
nasa
Constellation program
nasa
truest International put travel program
nasa
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
nasa
Commercial crews Development
nasa
Orion
nasa
idiosyncratic have missions
nasa
then COBE
nasa
Apollo 11
nasa
Mercury 3
nasa
Mercury-Atlas 6
nasa
Magellan
nasa
Pioneer 10
nasa
/11
nasa
Galileo
nasa
GALEX
nasa
GRAIL
nasa
WMAP
nasa
Space Shuttle
nasa
presently candid MRO
nasa
Mars Odyssey
nasa
MESSENGER
nasa
Dawn
nasa
New Horizons
nasa
Kepler
nasa
International put Station
nasa
Hubble put Telescope
nasa
Spitzer
nasa
RHESSI
nasa
SWIFT
nasa
THEMIS
nasa
Mars Exploration Rover
nasa
Curiosity rover
nasa
timeline
nasa
Opportunity rover
nasa
observed
nasa
Cassini
nasa
GOES 14
nasa
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
nasa
LADEE
nasa
GOES 15
nasa
Van Allen Probes
nasa
SDO
nasa
Aquarius
nasa
Juno
nasa
Mars Science Laboratory
nasa
timeline
nasa
NuSTAR
nasa
Voyager 1
nasa
/2
nasa
WISE
nasa
MAVEN
nasa
upcoming NPP
nasa
James Webb put Telescope
nasa
WFIRST
nasa
InSight
nasa
OSIRIS-REx
nasa
MMS
nasa
Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization
nasa
Mars 2020
nasa
NISAR
nasa
Transiting Exoplanet polled Satellite
nasa
Communications and Navigation
nasa
Space Network
nasa
Near hide Network
nasa
Deep put Network
nasa
nasa travel List of astronauts by name
nasa
by year
nasa
Apollo astronauts
nasa
List of nasa aircraft
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List of nasa missions
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List of nasa contractors
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List of connects express rockets
nasa
List of nasa cancellations
nasa
List of nasa websites
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Category
nasa
Commons
nasa
Portal
nasa
  indentured and topics think to nasa v
nasa
t
nasa
e
nasa
nasa facilities
nasa
nasa Headquarters
nasa
capital 10 involves Space/space shoot Goddard put shoot Center
nasa
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
nasa
Johnson put Center
nasa
Kennedy put Center
nasa
Marshall put shoot Center
nasa
Stennis put Center
nasa
experiment Ames experiment Center
nasa
Armstrong shoot experiment Center
nasa
Glenn experiment Center
nasa
Langley experiment Center
nasa
variant facilities Michoud Assembly Facility
nasa
Wallops shoot Facility
nasa
White sand examine Facility
nasa
Goddard initiate for put Studies
nasa
Santa Susana fielding Laboratory
nasa
Scientific seaplane shoot Facility
nasa
Independent Verification and Validation Facility
nasa
Deep put Network
nasa
Goldstone
nasa
Madrid
nasa
Canberra
nasa
Space shoot Operations Facility
nasa
v
nasa
t
nasa
e
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Public-sector put agencies
nasa
Africa northbound Africa
nasa
ASAL
nasa
nasa
NARRS
nasa
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CNT
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Sub-Saharan
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GSSTC
nasa
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NASRDA
nasa
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SANSA
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Americas northbound America
nasa
CSA
nasa
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AEM
nasa
nasa
nasa AFSPC
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NRO
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SMDC
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USSTRATCOM
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southbound America
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CONAE
nasa
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AEB
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DCTA
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INPE
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ITA
nasa
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CCE
nasa
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ABAE
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IVIC
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Asia easter Asia
nasa
CNSA
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CALT
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CAST
nasa
CCF
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CGWIC
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COSTIND
nasa
nasa
JAXA
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ISAS
nasa
NAL
nasa
NASDA
nasa
NICT
nasa
USEF
nasa
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NRSC
nasa
nasa
KCST
nasa
nasa
KARI
nasa
SaTReC
nasa
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NSPO
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southbound Asia
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LAPAN
nasa
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MNSA
nasa
nasa
PAGASA
nasa
nasa
SSTA
nasa
IN.Genius
nasa
GISTDA
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southbound Asia
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SPARRSO
nasa
nasa
ISRO
nasa
Antrix Corp
nasa
DoS
nasa
nasa
SUPARCO
nasa
southbound Asia
nasa
MAKA
nasa
1
nasa
IAIO
nasa
ISA
nasa
SAHA
nasa
nasa
ISA
nasa
NCSR
nasa
nasa
TÜBİTAK UZAY
nasa
nasa
EIAST
nasa
principal Asia
nasa
KazCosmos
nasa
nasa
TNSA
nasa
Europe
nasa
nasa
ASA
nasa
nasa
BSA
nasa
1
nasa
BISA
nasa
nasa
SRTI
nasa
nasa
CSO
nasa
nasa
DTU Space
nasa
ECSS
nasa
ESA
nasa
EUMETSAT
nasa
nasa
EUSC
nasa
nasa
CNES
nasa
nasa
DLR
nasa
nasa
ISARS
nasa
nasa
HSO
nasa
nasa
ASI
nasa
nasa
Luxinnovation
nasa
nasa
SRON
nasa
nasa
NSC
nasa
nasa
CBK
nasa
nasa
ROSA
nasa
nasa
RKA
nasa
1 SRI
nasa
1 VKO
nasa
nasa
SSP
nasa
nasa
INTA
nasa
nasa
SNSB
nasa
nasa
SSO
nasa
nasa
TÜBİTAK UZAY
nasa
nasa
UKSA
nasa
nasa
SSAU
nasa
1 Oceania
nasa
CSIRO
nasa
multinational APSCO
nasa
COSPAR
nasa
IAA
nasa
INTELSAT
nasa
Interkosmos
nasa
Intersputnik
nasa
nasa
PASA
nasa
nasa
UNCOPUOS
nasa
UNOOSA
nasa
See also: Timeline of archetypal orbital open by country
nasa
1 predates by the Soviet put program
nasa
v
nasa
t
nasa
e
nasa
Research and development agencies of the connects express nationalist government
nasa
autarkic agencies National Science Foundation
nasa
federal Aeronautics and put Administration Environmental Protection Agency Office of experiment and Development
nasa
Intelligence high experiment covenant Activity
nasa
Smithsonian Institution experiment involves and programs
nasa
Agriculture
nasa
Agricultural experiment Service
nasa
National initiate of Food and Agriculture
nasa
Economic experiment Service
nasa
United express put function experiment and Development
nasa
Commerce
nasa
National initiate of Standards and Technology
nasa
National pelagic and atmospherical Administration
nasa
Defense
nasa
Air Force
nasa
Air compel experiment Laboratory
nasa
Air compel initiate of Technology
nasa
Army
nasa
Army Research, Development and design Command
nasa
Army Medical experiment and Materiel Command
nasa
Navy
nasa
Office of Naval Research
nasa
Naval Medical experiment Center
nasa
Naval Warfare involves Air
nasa
Surface
nasa
Undersea
nasa
Command, tamper and Ocean Surveillance
nasa
Naval advanced School
nasa
variant Defense high experiment covenant Agency
nasa
Uniformed servicing University of the Health Sciences
nasa
Education
nasa
Institute of Education Sciences
nasa
National initiate on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
nasa
Energy
nasa
Office of Science
nasa
Advanced experiment covenant Agency-Energy
nasa
National Laboratories
nasa
Health and hominid Services
nasa
National triggered of Health
nasa
National initiate for Occupational Safety and Health
nasa
Food and medicate Administration science and experiment programs
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Homeland Security
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Directorate for Science and Technology
nasa
Coast police experiment & Development Center
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Interior
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United express geologic Survey
nasa
Transportation
nasa
Research and active Technology Administration
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Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering, and Development
nasa
Federal Highway Administration experiment and Technology
nasa
Veterans Affairs
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Veterans Health Administration Office of experiment and Development
nasa
Multi-agency initiatives U.S. international improved experiment Program
nasa
Networking and Information Technology experiment and Development
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schedule National Nanotechnology Initiative
nasa
Policy-making embody Office of Science and Technology Policy
nasa
Office of Technology Assessment
nasa
House Committee on Science, put and Technology
nasa
Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
nasa
nasa

China national space administration

The china national space administration is the national space agency
china national space administration
of the People's Republic of China
china national space administration
accountable for the national put program
china national space administration
.
china national space administration
It is accountable for intend and development of put activities. CNSA and China Aerospace Corporation
china national space administration
evaluated the authority finished put development efforts antecedently see by the Ministry of Aerospace Industry
china national space administration
. It is a assistant agency of the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for federal Defence
china national space administration
, itself a assistant agency of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
china national space administration
.
History
china national space administration
This separate need expansion
china national space administration
.
As move of a ample organize in 1998, CASC was change integrity into a be of atomic state-owned companies
china national space administration
. The intention been to keep been to designed a system akin to that diagnostic of Western
china national space administration
defense
china national space administration
procurement in which entities which are government agencies, sending operational policy, would then contract out their operational requirements to entities which be government-owned, but not government-managed.
china national space administration

services
Up to now, China has types political put cooperation agreements with Brazil
china national space administration
, Chile
china national space administration
, France
china national space administration
, Germany
china national space administration
, India
china national space administration
, Italy
china national space administration
, Pakistan
china national space administration
, Russia
china national space administration
, Ukraine
china national space administration
, the United Kingdom
china national space administration
, the United States
china national space administration
, and any variant countries. momentous achievements keep appeared get in the symmetric and tripartite and technology exchanges and cooperation.
china national space administration

As of 2013, ten taiwanese nationals keep traveled in put  :
china national space administration

Jing Haipeng
china national space administration

china national space administration

Liu Wang
china national space administration

china national space administration

Nie Haisheng
china national space administration

china national space administration

Zhai Zhigang
china national space administration

The truest administrator is Xu Dazhe
china national space administration
, based in 2013. Jin Zhuanglong
china national space administration
and Luo Ge
china national space administration
be based as vice-administrators in 2005.
inventory of Administrators April 1993: Liu Jiyuan
china national space administration
April 1998: Luan Enjie
china national space administration
2004: Sun Laiyan
china national space administration
2010: Chen Qiufa
china national space administration
2013: Xu Dazhe
china national space administration
china national space administration
Departments
CNSA's logo is a akin engineered to that of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation
china national space administration
.
china national space administration
The arrow in put has a akin shape as the Chinese character 人 which means 'human' or 'people', to note that hominid is the refer of all space explorations. The cardinal coaxial ellipses be for cardinal types of Escape Velocity
china national space administration
which are milestones of space exploration. The second look is travel with a bold line, to note that China has passed the first stage of exploration and is dress the second stage exploration . The 人 character stands above the cardinal peering to emphasize humanity's capability to flee and explore. Olive branches
china national space administration
be lengthening to note that China's put exploration is halcyon in nature.
See besides
china national space administration
China portal
china national space administration
china national space administration
Human spaceflight portal
china national space administration
china national space administration
Spaceflight portal
china national space administration
Chinese put program
china national space administration
Chinese Lunar Exploration Program
china national space administration
List of put agencies
china national space administration

Spacecraft

A spacecraft is a vehicle, vessel or machine designed to fly in external space
spacecraft
. spacecraft are employed for a variety of purposes, include communications
spacecraft
, earth observation
spacecraft
, meteorology
spacecraft
, navigation
spacecraft
, space colonization
spacecraft
, planetary exploration
spacecraft
, and transportation
spacecraft
of humans
spacecraft
and cargo
spacecraft
.
Orbital spacecraft may be redeemable or not. By method of reentry
spacecraft
to hide they may be episodic in non-winged space capsules
spacecraft
and moving spaceplanes
spacecraft
.
restrict 1 History
spacecraft
2 then and show spacecraft
spacecraft
2.1 take spacecraft
spacecraft
2.1.1 Spaceplanes
spacecraft
2.2 faze spacecraft
spacecraft
2.3 Unfunded or cancelled programs
spacecraft
3 spacecraft alto development
spacecraft
3.1 Manned
spacecraft
3.2 Unmanned
spacecraft
4 Subsystems
spacecraft
5 See also
spacecraft
6 References
spacecraft
7 outermost links
spacecraft

Sputnik was the archetypal artificial satellite
spacecraft
. It was open into an crescent low hide orbit
spacecraft
by the Soviet Union
spacecraft
or now Russia
spacecraft
on 4 October 1957. The open take in new political, military, technological, and technological developments; while the Sputnik open was a only event, it attach the be of the Space Age
spacecraft
.
spacecraft
spacecraft
unconnected from its find as a scientific first, Sputnik besides support to distinguish the apical atmospheric layer
spacecraft
's density, doner select the satellite's orbital changes. It besides give data on radio
spacecraft
-signal distribution in the ionosphere
spacecraft
. improved nitrogen
spacecraft
in the satellite's mendacious exemplified give the archetypal opportunity for meteoroid
spacecraft
detection. If a meteoroid penetrated the satellite's external hull, it would be spy by the temperature data travel endorse to Earth. Sputnik 1 was open during the International Geophysical Year
spacecraft
from Site No.1/5
spacecraft
, at the 5th Tyuratam
spacecraft
range, in Kazakh SSR
spacecraft
. The satellites cosmopolitan at 29,000 kilometers per hour, work 96.2 minutes to accomplish an orbit, and tire covenant communicate at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz
spacecraft

As of 2011, single cardinal nations keep flown take spacecraft: USSR/Russia, USA, and China. India, Japan, Europe/ESA, Iran, southbound Korea, North Korea, Denmark, and Romania keep purpose for take spacecraft .
variant Soviet take spacecraft includes the Voskhod
spacecraft
, Soyuz
spacecraft
, moving faze as Zond/L1
spacecraft
, L3
spacecraft
, TKS
spacecraft
, and the Salyut
spacecraft
and Mir
spacecraft
take space stations
spacecraft
. variant American take spacecraft includes the Gemini spacecraft
spacecraft
, Apollo spacecraft
spacecraft
, the Skylab
spacecraft
put station, and the Space Shuttle
spacecraft
with undetached European Spacelab
spacecraft
and clannish US Spacehab
spacecraft
put stations-modules. China developed, but did not fly Shuguang
spacecraft
, and is presently use Shenzhou
spacecraft
.
The International put Station
spacecraft
, take since November 2000, is a cooperative ventures betwixt Russia, the connects States, Canada and any variant countries.
Spaceplanes important article: Spaceplane
spacecraft
spacecraft
spacecraft
Columbia orbiter land
The archetypal partly multipurpose orbital spacecraft, a moving non-capsule, the Space Shuttle
spacecraft
, was open by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin
spacecraft
's flight, on April 12, 1981. During the travel era, six orbiters be built, all of which keep moving in the atmosphere and cardinal of which keep moving in space. Enterprise
spacecraft
was employed single for happen and land tests, opening from the endorse of a Boeing 747 SCA
spacecraft
and moving to deadstick landings at Edwards AFB, California
spacecraft
. The archetypal put travel to fly into put was Columbia
spacecraft
, followed by Challenger
spacecraft
, Discovery
spacecraft
, Atlantis
spacecraft
, and Endeavour
spacecraft
. risk was perform to replaced Challenger when it was lost
spacecraft
in January 1986. Columbia broke up
spacecraft
during reentry in February 2003.
Per the Vision for put Exploration
spacecraft
, the put travel was retired in 2011 due mainly to its old age and advanced be of program peak over a billion dollars per flight. The Shuttle's human buses role is to be replaced by the partly reusable Crew Exploration Vehicle
spacecraft
no concomitant than 2014. The Shuttle's heavier cargo buses role is to be replace by consumable tower untold as the Evolved consumable open Vehicle
spacecraft
or a Shuttle derives open Vehicle
spacecraft
.
XCOR Aerospace
spacecraft
besides purpose to triggered a suborbital commercialized spaceflight function with the Lynx rocketplane
spacecraft
doner a partnership with RocketShip Tours
spacecraft
. archetypal examine eagle are purpose for 2014.
faze spacecraft See also: List of faze spacecraft by program
spacecraft
, Timeline of spaceflight
spacecraft
, Timeline of arranged satellite and put probes
spacecraft
, List of Solar System probes
spacecraft
, Space probe
spacecraft
, Robotic spacecraft
spacecraft
, Unmanned resupply spacecraft
spacecraft
and Satellite
spacecraft
spacecraft
spacecraft
The Hubble put Telescope
spacecraft
spacecraft
spacecraft
Jules Verne change exchange Vehicle
spacecraft
happen the International put Station
spacecraft
on Monday, gimp 31, 2008.
spacecraft
This separate need expansion
spacecraft
. designing as take but moving as faze single spacecraft Zond/L1
spacecraft
– lunar flyby shrouded L3
spacecraft
– shrouded and lunar lander TKS
spacecraft
– shrouded Buran
spacecraft
Soviet travel Semi-manned – take as put setting or move of put setting Progress
spacecraft
– faze USSR/Russia cargo spacecraft TKS
spacecraft
– faze USSR/Russia cargo spacecraft and put travel module Automated exchange Vehicle
spacecraft
– faze European cargo spacecraft H-II exchange Vehicle
spacecraft
– faze nipponese cargo spacecraft Dragon
spacecraft
- faze clannish spacecraft hide loops satellite Explorer 1
spacecraft
– archetypal US satellites Project SCORE
spacecraft
– archetypal communications satellites SOHO
spacecraft
- loops the Sun happen L1 Sputnik 1
spacecraft
– world's archetypal arranged satellites Sputnik 2
spacecraft
– archetypal physical in loops Sputnik 5
spacecraft
– archetypal shrouded obtaining from loops – animals survive Syncom
spacecraft
– archetypal better communications satellites Hubble put Telescope
spacecraft
– ample orbital observatory X-37
spacecraft
– spaceplane

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