Spacecraft

A spacecraft is a vehicle, vessel or machine designed to fly in external space
spacecraft
. spacecraft are employed for a variety of purposes, include communications
spacecraft
, earth observation
spacecraft
, meteorology
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, navigation
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, space colonization
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, planetary exploration
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, and transportation
spacecraft
of humans
spacecraft
and cargo
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.
Orbital spacecraft may be redeemable or not. By method of reentry
spacecraft
to hide they may be episodic in non-winged space capsules
spacecraft
and moving spaceplanes
spacecraft
.
restrict 1 History
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2 then and show spacecraft
spacecraft
2.1 take spacecraft
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2.1.1 Spaceplanes
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2.2 faze spacecraft
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2.3 Unfunded or cancelled programs
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3 spacecraft alto development
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3.1 Manned
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3.2 Unmanned
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4 Subsystems
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5 See also
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6 References
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7 outermost links
spacecraft

Sputnik was the archetypal artificial satellite
spacecraft
. It was open into an crescent low hide orbit
spacecraft
by the Soviet Union
spacecraft
or now Russia
spacecraft
on 4 October 1957. The open take in new political, military, technological, and technological developments; while the Sputnik open was a only event, it attach the be of the Space Age
spacecraft
.
spacecraft
spacecraft
unconnected from its find as a scientific first, Sputnik besides support to distinguish the apical atmospheric layer
spacecraft
's density, doner select the satellite's orbital changes. It besides give data on radio
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-signal distribution in the ionosphere
spacecraft
. improved nitrogen
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in the satellite's mendacious exemplified give the archetypal opportunity for meteoroid
spacecraft
detection. If a meteoroid penetrated the satellite's external hull, it would be spy by the temperature data travel endorse to Earth. Sputnik 1 was open during the International Geophysical Year
spacecraft
from Site No.1/5
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, at the 5th Tyuratam
spacecraft
range, in Kazakh SSR
spacecraft
. The satellites cosmopolitan at 29,000 kilometers per hour, work 96.2 minutes to accomplish an orbit, and tire covenant communicate at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz
spacecraft

As of 2011, single cardinal nations keep flown take spacecraft: USSR/Russia, USA, and China. India, Japan, Europe/ESA, Iran, southbound Korea, North Korea, Denmark, and Romania keep purpose for take spacecraft .
variant Soviet take spacecraft includes the Voskhod
spacecraft
, Soyuz
spacecraft
, moving faze as Zond/L1
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, L3
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, TKS
spacecraft
, and the Salyut
spacecraft
and Mir
spacecraft
take space stations
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. variant American take spacecraft includes the Gemini spacecraft
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, Apollo spacecraft
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, the Skylab
spacecraft
put station, and the Space Shuttle
spacecraft
with undetached European Spacelab
spacecraft
and clannish US Spacehab
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put stations-modules. China developed, but did not fly Shuguang
spacecraft
, and is presently use Shenzhou
spacecraft
.
The International put Station
spacecraft
, take since November 2000, is a cooperative ventures betwixt Russia, the connects States, Canada and any variant countries.
Spaceplanes important article: Spaceplane
spacecraft
spacecraft
spacecraft
Columbia orbiter land
The archetypal partly multipurpose orbital spacecraft, a moving non-capsule, the Space Shuttle
spacecraft
, was open by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin
spacecraft
's flight, on April 12, 1981. During the travel era, six orbiters be built, all of which keep moving in the atmosphere and cardinal of which keep moving in space. Enterprise
spacecraft
was employed single for happen and land tests, opening from the endorse of a Boeing 747 SCA
spacecraft
and moving to deadstick landings at Edwards AFB, California
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. The archetypal put travel to fly into put was Columbia
spacecraft
, followed by Challenger
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, Discovery
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, Atlantis
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, and Endeavour
spacecraft
. risk was perform to replaced Challenger when it was lost
spacecraft
in January 1986. Columbia broke up
spacecraft
during reentry in February 2003.
Per the Vision for put Exploration
spacecraft
, the put travel was retired in 2011 due mainly to its old age and advanced be of program peak over a billion dollars per flight. The Shuttle's human buses role is to be replaced by the partly reusable Crew Exploration Vehicle
spacecraft
no concomitant than 2014. The Shuttle's heavier cargo buses role is to be replace by consumable tower untold as the Evolved consumable open Vehicle
spacecraft
or a Shuttle derives open Vehicle
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.
XCOR Aerospace
spacecraft
besides purpose to triggered a suborbital commercialized spaceflight function with the Lynx rocketplane
spacecraft
doner a partnership with RocketShip Tours
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. archetypal examine eagle are purpose for 2014.
faze spacecraft See also: List of faze spacecraft by program
spacecraft
, Timeline of spaceflight
spacecraft
, Timeline of arranged satellite and put probes
spacecraft
, List of Solar System probes
spacecraft
, Space probe
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, Robotic spacecraft
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, Unmanned resupply spacecraft
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and Satellite
spacecraft
spacecraft
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The Hubble put Telescope
spacecraft
spacecraft
spacecraft
Jules Verne change exchange Vehicle
spacecraft
happen the International put Station
spacecraft
on Monday, gimp 31, 2008.
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This separate need expansion
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. designing as take but moving as faze single spacecraft Zond/L1
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– lunar flyby shrouded L3
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– shrouded and lunar lander TKS
spacecraft
– shrouded Buran
spacecraft
Soviet travel Semi-manned – take as put setting or move of put setting Progress
spacecraft
– faze USSR/Russia cargo spacecraft TKS
spacecraft
– faze USSR/Russia cargo spacecraft and put travel module Automated exchange Vehicle
spacecraft
– faze European cargo spacecraft H-II exchange Vehicle
spacecraft
– faze nipponese cargo spacecraft Dragon
spacecraft
- faze clannish spacecraft hide loops satellite Explorer 1
spacecraft
– archetypal US satellites Project SCORE
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– archetypal communications satellites SOHO
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- loops the Sun happen L1 Sputnik 1
spacecraft
– world's archetypal arranged satellites Sputnik 2
spacecraft
– archetypal physical in loops Sputnik 5
spacecraft
– archetypal shrouded obtaining from loops – animals survive Syncom
spacecraft
– archetypal better communications satellites Hubble put Telescope
spacecraft
– ample orbital observatory X-37
spacecraft
– spaceplane

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