Space shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low hide orbital
Space Shuttle
spacecraft
Space Shuttle
system request by the U.S. National Aeronautics and put Administration
Space Shuttle
. Its authoritative schedule term was put Transportation System, work from a 1969 scheduling for a system of multipurpose spacecraft
Space Shuttle
of which it was the single item roll up for development.
Space Shuttle
The archetypal of cardinal orbital test eagle happen in 1981, leading to operational eagle founded in 1982. They were employed on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, open from the Kennedy put Center
Space Shuttle
in Florida. Operational missions open galore satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble put Telescope
Space Shuttle
; conducted science research in orbit; and behave in construction and services of the International put Station
Space Shuttle
. The travel travel rapidly been 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 support during missions.
Space Shuttle

The archetypal orbiter, Enterprise
Space Shuttle
, was perform strictly for Approach and land Tests
Space Shuttle
and had no orbital capability. cardinal to the full operational orbiters be ab initio built: Columbia
Space Shuttle
, Challenger
Space Shuttle
, Discovery
Space Shuttle
, and Atlantis
Space Shuttle
. Of these, Challenger and Columbia be destroying in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003 respectively, in which a average of eight astronauts be killed. A fourth operational orbiter, Endeavour
Space Shuttle
, was perform in 1991 to replaced Challenger. The put travel was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis '​s close shoot on July 21, 2011.
Overview
The vehicle be of a spaceplane
Space Shuttle
for loops and re-entry, gates by consumable fluid hydrogen and fluid oxygen tanks, with reusable strap-on nice booster rockets. The first
Space Shuttle
of cardinal orbital examine eagle happen in 1981, directive to operational eagle founded in 1982, all open from the Kennedy put Center
Space Shuttle
, Florida. The system was retired from function in 2011 aft 135 missions,
Space Shuttle
with Atlantis building the close open of the three-decade travel schedule on July 8, 2011.
Space Shuttle
The schedule end aft Atlantis landed at the Kennedy put refer on July 21, 2011. bones missions included launching numerous satellite and interplanetary probes,
Space Shuttle
conducting put science experiments, and services and construction of put stations. The archetypal orbiter
Space Shuttle
vehicle, designate Enterprise
Space Shuttle
, was perform for the initials Approach and land Tests
Space Shuttle
phasing and miss engines, change shielding, and variant equipment constituent for orbital flight.
Space Shuttle
A average of cardinal operational orbiters be built, and of these, two be destroying in accidents.
At launch, it be of the "stack", include the darker golden external tank
Space Shuttle
;
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
two white, tenuous solid tower boosters
Space Shuttle
; and the Orbiter Vehicle
Space Shuttle
, which contained the crew
Space Shuttle
and payload. Some payloads be open into advanced orbits with either of two different apical re-create developed for the STS . The put Shuttle was fill in the Vehicle Assembly Building
Space Shuttle
, and the rick attach on a peregrine open platform see drink by cardinal frangible nuts
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
on all SRB, which be change integrity at launch.
Space Shuttle

When the orbiter's put mission was complete, it blast its OMS thrusters to plummeted out of loops and re-enter the move atmosphere.
Space Shuttle
During descent, the orbiter travel doner other moulding of the atmosphere and decrease from hypersonic
Space Shuttle
moving chiefly by aerobraking
Space Shuttle
. In the move atmosphere and land phase, it was more than seeking a glider
Space Shuttle
but with reaction tamper system
Space Shuttle
thrusters and fly-by-wire
Space Shuttle
-controlled hydraulically triggered shoot surface controlling its descent. It land on a long runway as a spaceplane. The aerodynamic moulding was a compromising between the demand of radically other speeds and air pressures during re-entry, hypersonic flight, and subsonic atmospheric flight. As a result, the orbiter had a relatively advanced sink rate
Space Shuttle
at low altitudes, and it transitioned during re-entry from use RCS thrusters at dead advanced altitudes to shoot surface in the move atmosphere.
aboriginal history favor information: Space travel program
Space Shuttle
and Space travel engineered process
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
President Nixon with NASA Administrator
Space Shuttle
Fletcher
Space Shuttle
in January 1972, cardinal months earlier Congress accept roll up for the travel schedule
In 1958, the X-15 concept favor create into proposal to open an X-15 into space, and different X-series
Space Shuttle
spaceplane
Space Shuttle
proposal, designate X-20 Dyna-Soar
Space Shuttle
, as resurfacing as variety of aerospace cut concepts and studies. Neil Armstrong
Space Shuttle
was decide to pilot both the X-15 and the X-20. Though the X-20 was not built, different spaceplane akin to the X-20 was perform any years concomitant and delivered to NASA in January 1966 called the HL-10
Space Shuttle
.
In 1968, NASA formally began take on what was sometime known as the Integrated open and Re-entry Vehicle . At the same time, NASA held a separate Space travel Main Engine competition. NASA offices in Houston
Space Shuttle
and Huntsville
Space Shuttle
collectively publicize a Request for Proposal
Space Shuttle
for ILRV analyse to engineered a spacecraft that could deliver a payload to orbit but besides re-enter the atmosphere and fly back to Earth. For example, one of the responses was for a two-stage design, have a ample booster and a small orbiter, called the DC-3
Space Shuttle
, one of several Phase A Shuttle designs. After the aforementioned "Phase A" studies, B, C, and D phases progressively assumed in-depth create up to 1972. In the final design, the give phase was recoverable nice tower boosters, and the top phase employed an consumable outermost tank.
Space Shuttle

Across the Atlantic, European minister met in Belgium in 1973 to accept occidental Europe's manned orbital covenant and its important contribution to put Shuttle—the Spacelab
Space Shuttle
program.
Space Shuttle
Spacelab would giving a multidisciplinary orbital put laboratory and cumulative put equipment for the Shuttle.
Space Shuttle

Description
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
STS-1 on the open pad, 1981
all put travel was a reusable open system
Space Shuttle
graphs of cardinal important assemblies: the multipurpose OV, the consumable ET, and the two multipurpose SRBs.
Space Shuttle
Only the OV entered orbit soon aft the tank and boosters are jettisoned. The vehicle was open vertically seeking a conventional rocket, and the orbiter glided to a horizontal land seeking an airplane, aft which it was refurbished for reuse. The SRBs parachuted to splashdown in the ocean where they be towed back to shore and refurbished for concomitant Shuttle missions.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Discovery tower into orbit, perceive show conscionable aft nice tower booster separation
Roger A. Pielke, Jr.
Space Shuttle
has reason that the Space travel program
Space Shuttle
cost about US$170 billion through early 2008; the average cost per flight was about US$1.5 billion.
Space Shuttle
Two missions be provide for by Germany, Spacelab D1
Space Shuttle
and D2
Space Shuttle
with a payload tamper refer in Oberpfaffenhofen
Space Shuttle
.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
D1 was the archetypal quantify that tamper of a take STS mission payload was not in U.S. hands.
Space Shuttle

Responsibility for the Shuttle components was spread among multiple NASA fielding centers. The Kennedy Space refer was accountable for launch, land and turnaround operations for tropical loops , the US Air Force at the Vandenberg Air compel Base
Space Shuttle
was accountable for launch, land and turnaround operations for be loops , the Johnson put Center
Space Shuttle
suffice as the principal aim for all travel operations, the Marshall put shoot Center
Space Shuttle
was accountable for the important engines, outermost tank, and nice tower boosters, the John C. Stennis put Center
Space Shuttle
handled important engine testing, and the Goddard put shoot Center
Space Shuttle
attain the international bring in network.
Space Shuttle

Orbiter vehicle important article: Space travel orbiter
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
travel open profiles. From travel to right: Columbia
Space Shuttle
, Challenger
Space Shuttle
, Discovery
Space Shuttle
, Atlantis
Space Shuttle
, and Endeavour
Space Shuttle
.
The orbiter's payload bay decide 15 by 60 feet , been most of the fuselage
Space Shuttle
. Information liberate in 2011 show that the payload bay was designing specifically to house the KH-9 HEXAGON
Space Shuttle
spy satellites request by the National Reconnaissance Office
Space Shuttle
.
Space Shuttle
Two mostly symmetrical lengthwise payload bay doors connect on either side of the bay be its intact top. Payloads were generally fill horizontally into the bay while the orbiter is oriented vertically on the launch pad and unloaded vertically in the near-weightless orbital environment by the orbiter's robotic remote manipulator arm
Space Shuttle
, EVA astronauts, or alto the payloads' own give
The operational orbiters perform be OV-102 Columbia, OV-099 Challenger, OV-103 Discovery, OV-104 Atlantis, and OV-105 Endeavour.
Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle

put travel risk be setting by a travel Carrier Aircraft
Space Shuttle

watering is let go of onto the peregrine launcher platform on Launch Pad 39A
Space Shuttle
at the be of a peering suppression system examine in 2004. During launch, 350,000 US gallons of watering are setting onto the pad in 41 seconds.
Space Shuttle

outermost have important article: Space travel outermost tank
Space Shuttle

Two nice tower boosters all give 12.5 million newtons of poking at liftoff,
Space Shuttle
which was 83% of the total thrust at liftoff. The SRBs were jettisoned two minutes aft launch at a height of about 150,000 feet , and sometime deployed travel and land in the ocean to be recovered.
Space Shuttle
The SRB casing be perform of nerve around ½ inch thick.
Space Shuttle
The nice tower boosters be re-used galore times; the cases employed in Ares I
Space Shuttle
engine examine in 2009 be of travel casing that had appeared flown, collectively, on 48 travel missions, include STS-1.
Space Shuttle

The orbiter could be employed in conjunction with a variety of add-ons depending on the mission. This include orbital laboratories , boosters for launching payloads remote into put , and variant functions, untold as give by Extended Duration Orbiter
Space Shuttle
, Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules
Space Shuttle
, or Canadarm
Space Shuttle
. An apical phase label Transfer loops Stage
Space Shuttle
was besides employed once.
Space Shuttle
variant types of systems and march were move of the standard Spacelab system —pallets, igloo, IPS, etc., which besides support circumstantial missions such as SRTM
Space Shuttle
.
Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle

IUS deployed with Galileo
Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle

EDO
Space Shuttle
be installing
Space Shuttle

RMS
Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle

A major component of the put travel schedule was Spacelab, primarily contributed by a consortium of European countries, and request in conjunction with the connects express and world partners.
Space Shuttle
support by a standard system of improved modules, pallets, and systems, Spacelab missions hit on multidisciplinary science, orbital logistics, and world cooperation.
Space Shuttle
finished 29 missions travel on affect give from astronomy, microgravity, radar, and life sciences, to term a few.
Space Shuttle
Spacelab hardware besides support missions untold as Hubble services and put travel resupply.
Space Shuttle
STS-2 and STS-3 give testing, and the archetypal beat mission was Spacelab-1 open on November 28, 1983.
Space Shuttle

The travel was one of the aboriginal perform to use a given fly-by-wire
Space Shuttle
digital flight tamper system
Space Shuttle
. This convey no autoloading or hydraulic linkages connected the pilot's tamper stick to the tamper surfaces or reaction tamper system thrusters. The tamper algorithm, which employed a modular Proportional inherent Derivative
Space Shuttle
approach, was create and maintain by Honeywell
Space Shuttle
. The Shuttle's fly-by-wire
Space Shuttle
digital flight tamper system
Space Shuttle
was composed of 4 control systems all addressing a other mission phase: Ascent, Descent, On-Orbit and Aborts. Honeywell is besides credited with the design and implementation of the Shuttle's fish bowl manipulate Control Algorithm that allowed the Orbiter to safely land at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Runway.
The engineered goal of the Shuttle's DPS was fail-operational/fail-safe reliability. aft a only failure, the travel could comforts act the mission. aft two failures, it could comforts beach safely.
The Backup Flight System was separately developed software running on the fifth computer, used single if the entire four-computer capital system failed. The BFS was perform because although the cardinal capital computers be hardware redundant, they all ran the same software, so a generic software problem could crash all of them. insert system avionic
Space Shuttle
software was developed under totally other conditions from public commercial software: the number of code lines was tiny compared to a public commercial software product, changes were only made infrequently and with extensive testing, and many schedule and test personnel worked on the atomic amount of computer code. However, in theory it could keep still failed, and the BFS existed for that contingency. While the BFS could run in parallel with PASS, the BFS never act to take over control from PASS during any Shuttle mission.
The IBM AP-101 computers originally had around 424 kilobytes of magnetic cave memory
Space Shuttle
each. The CPU could process around 400,000 instructions per second. They had no ambitious disks drive, and loaded software from magnetic stick cartridges.
aboriginal travel missions, be in November 1983, work on the GRiD Compass
Space Shuttle
, arguably one of the first laptop computers. The GRiD was given the name SPOC, for Shuttle Portable Onboard Computer. Use on the Shuttle required both hardware and software modifications which were incorporated into later versions of the commercial product. It was used to monitor and display the Shuttle's ground position, path of the next two orbits, show where the Shuttle had line of sight communications with ground stations, and determine points for location-specific observations of the Earth. The Compass sold poorly, as it cost at least US$8000, but it offered unmatched performance for its weight and size.
Space Shuttle
NASA was one of its important customers.
Space Shuttle

The prototype orbiter Enterprise originally had a flag of the connects States
Space Shuttle
on the upper well of the left wing and the letters "USA" in white on the correctly wing. The name "Enterprise" was painted in white on the payload bay doors just preparatory the attach and drink the crews module; on the aft end of the payload bay doors was the NASA "worm" logotype
Space Shuttle
in gray. Underneath the rear of the payload bay doors on the sides of the fuselage conscionable preparatory the wing is the text "United States" in black with a flag of the United express upward of it.
Challenger established a modified marking scheme for the shuttle fleet that was matched by Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. The letters "USA" in black preparatory an American flag were show on the left wing, with the NASA "worm" logotype in improved centered preparatory the name of the orbiter in black on the right wing. The name of the orbiter was inscribed not on the payload bay doors, but on the forward fuselage just below and drink the cockpit windows. This would make the name circumpolar when the shuttle was rescue in orbit with the doors open.
founded in 1998, the shoot vehicles' markings be dress to integrated the NASA "meatball" insignia
Space Shuttle
. The "worm" logotype, which the agency had phase out, was removed from the payload bay doors and the "meatball" insignia was added aft of the "United States" text on the lower aft fuselage. The "meatball" insignia was also show on the travel wing, with the American flag above the orbiter's name, left-justified rather than centered, on the correctly wing. The three survives flight vehicles, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour, comforts bear these markings as museum displays. Enterprise became the property of the Smithsonian Institution
Space Shuttle
in 1985 and was no agelong under NASA's tamper when these dress were made, therefore the prototype orbiter comforts has its 1983 markings and comforts has its term on the payload bay doors.
repaired
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Atlantis
Space Shuttle
was the archetypal travel to fly with a glass cockpit
Space Shuttle
, on STS-101
Space Shuttle
.
The Space Shuttle Main Engines had several improvements to intensify reliability and power. This explains convey untold as "Main engines throttling up to 104 percent." This did not meant the engines were being run finished a fail-safe limit. The 100 percent rating was the original leased power level. During the desire development program, Rocketdyne
Space Shuttle
price the engine was capable of safe reliable operation at 104 percent of the originally specified thrust. NASA could have rescaled the output number, saying in essence 104 percent is now 100 percent. To clarifying this would have required revising much previous documentation and software, so the 104 percent number was retained. SSME upgrades were denoted as "block numbers", such as blocks I, blocks II, and blocks IIA. The upgrades improved engine reliability, maintainability and performance. The 109% thrust level was finally reached in shoot hardware with the blocks II engines in 2001. The normal maximum throttle was 104 percent, with 106 percent or 109 percent employed for mission aborts.
The nice tower boosters improved improvements as well. engineered create lengthening a ordinal O-ring
Space Shuttle
close to the joint betwixt the divide aft the 1986 put travel Challenger disaster.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
The cardinal nozzles of the Space travel important Engine
Space Shuttle
with the two Orbital tamper System
Space Shuttle
pods, and the vertical stabilizer
Space Shuttle
above.
STS-70
Space Shuttle
was decelerate in 1995, when woodpeckers
Space Shuttle
bore hit in the rays insulation of Discovery's outermost tank. Since then, NASA has installing commercial plastic owl hooked and expandable owl balloons which had to be work prior to launch.
Space Shuttle
The sensitive nature of the rays insulation had appeared the perform of dress to the Thermal Protection System
Space Shuttle
, the tile change shield and change wrap of the orbiter. NASA be confident that this damage, while it was the capital cause of the put Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, would not existing the completion of the International put Station in the projected time allotted.
On the first cardinal travel missions, astronauts wear dress US Air compel high-altitude full-pressure suits, which include a full-pressure helmet during ascent and descent. From the fourth flight, STS-5
Space Shuttle
, until the loss of Challenger, one-piece lighten northern nomex
Space Shuttle
shoot interact and partial-pressure helmets were worn. A less-bulky, partial-pressure version of the high-altitude pressure interact with a helmet was reinstated when Shuttle eagle resumed in 1988. The Launch-Entry accommodate end its service life in recently 1995, and was replaced by the full-pressure Advanced crews flee Suit
Space Shuttle
, which mismatched the Gemini put suit
Space Shuttle
in design, but retain the golden improved of the Launch-Entry Suit.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
put travel orbiter illustration
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
put travel travel
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
put travel moving cutaway
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
put travel Orbiter and Soyuz-TM
Space Shuttle
.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Two put Shuttles sit at launch pads. This particular perform is due to the final Hubble services mission, where the International put Station is unreachable, which require have a travel on alternate for a possible saving mission.
outermost have
Length: 46.9 m Diameter: 8.4 m propellent volume: 2,025 m3 improved weight: 26,535 kg get liftoff fault : 756,000 kg
System rick
Height: 56 m get liftoff weight: 2,000,000 kg average liftoff thrust: 30.16 MN Mission write
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
STS mission
Space Shuttle
write
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
travel open of Atlantis at old in 2001. The Sun is drink the camera, and the plume's shadows interact the Moon
Space Shuttle
across the sky. open See also: Space travel open countdown
Space Shuttle
and Space travel open act criteria
Space Shuttle

Historically, the Shuttle was not open if its flight would run from December to January . Its flight software, designing in the 1970s, was not designing for this, and would require the orbiter's computers be quantify through a change of year, which could cause a glitch while in orbit. In 2007, NASA create devised a solution so Shuttle eagle could cycle the year-end boundary.
Space Shuttle

At T-minus 16 seconds, the ample peering suppression system began to brine the Mobile Launcher Platform
Space Shuttle
and SRB trench with 300,000 US gallons of watering to wall the Orbiter from dress by acoustical
Space Shuttle
energy and tower exhausted reflects from the beacon trenches and MLP during travel off.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

The three important engines started at T-minus 6.6 seconds. The important engines ignited next via the Shuttle's general purpose computers at 120 millisecond intervals. The GPCs required that the engines peak 90 percent of their rated performance to accomplish the close gimbal of the important engine nozzles to liftoff configuration.
Space Shuttle
When the SSMEs started, watering from the sound suppression system flashing into a ample volume of steam that harm southward. All three SSMEs had to peak the required 100 percent thrust within three seconds, otherwise the onboard computers would initiate an RSLS abort
Space Shuttle
. If the onboard computers verifying average poking buildup, at T contests 0 seconds, the 8 pyrotechnic nuts
Space Shuttle
respects the vehicle to the pad be change integrity and the SRBs be ignited. At this aim the vehicle was behave to liftoff, as the SRBs could not be turned off formerly ignited.
Space Shuttle
The plume from the solid rockets exited the beacon trench in a northbound direction at near the speed of sound, often causing a rippling of shockwaves along the actual beacon and smoke contrails. At ignition, the GPCs mandated the firing sequences via the know Events Controller, a computer program integrated with the Shuttle's four redundant computer systems. There were ample emergency procedures to handle various failure scenarios during ascent. Many of these concerned SSME failures, since that was the most complex and highly stressed component. After the Challenger disaster, there were ample upgrades to the abort modes.
Shortly after clearing the tower, the Shuttle began a combined roll, pitch and yaw maneuver that oriented the vehicle onto the correct heading for the purpose orbital inclination and in a heads down attitude with wings level. The Shuttle flew upside down during the ascent phase. This orientation allowed a trim angle of attack that was favorable for aerodynamic loads during the region of high dynamic pressure, resulting in a net positive load factor, as well as providing the flight crew with a view of the horizon as a visual reference. The vehicle climbed in a increasingly shape arc, accelerating as the weight of the SRBs and main tank decreased. To achieve low loops need such more horizontal than vertical acceleration. This was not visually obvious, since the vehicle rose vertically and was out of sight for most of the horizontal acceleration. The happen circular orbital velocity at the 380 kilometers altitude of the world Space Station is 27,650 km/h , roughly equivalent to Mach 23 at sea level. As the world Space Station orbits at an inclination of 51.6 degrees, missions going there must set orbital inclination to the same value in order to rendezvous with the station.
A few seconds later, aft the travel had gained more altitude and peak a region of lower atmospherical pressure, this dangerous aim is passed. At T+70 seconds the important engines throttled up to their maximum cruise poking of 104% rated thrust.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
nice tower Booster separation during STS-1. The green outermost have pictures was employed on STS-1 and STS-2.
The vehicle continued to skin and lead on a somewhat nose-up angle to the horizon – it used the main engines to gain and sometime maintain altitude while it accelerated horizontally towards orbit. At about five and three-quarter minutes into ascent, the orbiter's operating communication think with the ground began to fade, at which point it trend heads up to reroute its communication think to the Tracking and Data covenant Satellite
Space Shuttle
system.
The main engines were shut down before complete depletion of propellant, as running dry would have destroying the engines. The oxygen supply was improved before the hydrogen supply, as the SSMEs reacted unfavorably to other shutdown modes. The outermost have was released by firing pyrotechnic fasteners, largely eliminate up in the atmosphere, though any fragments fell into the ocean, in either the Indian Ocean or the Pacific Ocean depending on launch profile.
Space Shuttle
The sealing contest of the tank plumbing and lack of pressure relief systems on the outermost tank helped it break up in the lower atmosphere. After the foam burned forth during re-entry, the change caused a pressure buildup in the remaining liquid oxygen and hydrogen until the tank exploded. This ensured that any pieces that fell back to Earth be small.
The Shuttle was monitored throughout its ascent for short crops tracking , medium crops and long crops . Short crops cameras included 22 16mm cameras on the peregrine Launch Platform and 8 16mm on the Fixed Service Structure, 4 high speed better cameras located on the perimeter of the open complex plus an cumulative 42 better cameras with 16mm motion picture film. Medium crops cameras included remotely operated tracking cameras at the open complex plus 6 sites along the immediate coast north and south of the open pad, each with 800mm lens and high speed cameras running 100 frames per second. These cameras ran for only 4–10 seconds due to limitations in the amount of rescue available. Long crops cameras included those mounted on the external tank, SRBs and orbiter itself which streamed live video back to the ground providing valuable information about any debris falling during ascent. Long crops tracking cameras with 400-inch rescue and 200-inch video lenses were operated by a photographer at Playalinda Beach
Space Shuttle
as resurfacing as 9 variant travel from 38 miles northbound at the Ponce Inlet
Space Shuttle
to 23 miles southbound to Patrick Air compel Base
Space Shuttle
and additional mobile optical tracking camera was setting on Merritt Island during launches. A total of 10 HD cameras be used any for ascent information for create and publicize feeds to communicate untold as NASA TV
Space Shuttle
and HDNet
Space Shuttle
The be of cameras importantly hyperbolic and galore endangered cameras be repaired at the recommendation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board
Space Shuttle
to giving repaired information around the debris during launch. Debris was besides bring in use a pair of Weibel
Space Shuttle
unremitting beat Doppler X-band radars, one on use the SRB recovery travel MV Liberty Star
Space Shuttle
installed northbound east of the open pad and on a travel installed southbound of the open pad. Additionally, during the first 2 flights following the loss of Columbia and her crew, a happen of NASA WB-57
Space Shuttle
reconnaissance aircraft equipped with HD Video and invisible travel at 60,000 feet to giving cumulative reasons of the launch ascent.
Space Shuttle
Kennedy Space Center also invested nearly $3 million in improvements to the digital video analysis systems in support of debris tracking.
Space Shuttle

In loops
Almost the intact Space travel re-entry procedure, minds for setting the landing gear and deploying the air data probes, was commonly performed under computer control. However, the re-entry could be flown entirely manually if an emergency arose. The approach and landing phasing could be manipulate by the autopilot, but was usually hand flown.
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
flashed plasma trails from travel re-entry as perceive from the put travel
The vehicle been meet more than momentous air density in the move thermosphere at approximately 400,000 ft , at approximately Mach
Space Shuttle
25, 8,200 m/s . The vehicle was manipulate by a combination of RCS thrusters
Space Shuttle
and tamper surfaces, to fly at a 40-degree nose-up attitude, producing high drag, not single to slow it down to landing speed, but also to reduce reentry heating. As the vehicle encountered progressively denser air, it began a piecemeal transition from spacecraft to aircraft. In a straight line, its 40-degree nose-up attitude would cause the descent travel to flatten-out, or even rise. The vehicle therefore performed a series of four steep S-shaped banking turns, each decide several minutes, at up to 70 degrees of bank, while still maintaining the 40-degree travel of attack. In this way it dissipated speed bias rather than upwards. This occurred during the 'hottest' phase of re-entry, when the heat-shield glowed red and the G-forces be at their highest. By the end of the last turn, the transition to aircraft was almost complete. The vehicle level its wings, lowered its nose into a shallow dive and began its approach to the landing site.
Space Shuttle

A put travel mimic improved a wind tunnel
Space Shuttle
examine in 1975. This examine is reproduce the change gasses that hint a travel as it reenters the atmosphere.
Space Shuttle

The orbiter's maximal glide ratio
Space Shuttle
/lift-to-drag ratio
Space Shuttle
dress surface with speed, give from 1:1 at hypersonic
Space Shuttle
speeds, 2:1 at supersonic travel and peak 4.5:1 at subsonic travel during happen and landing.
Space Shuttle

When the approach and landing phasing began, the orbiter was at a 3,000 m altitude, 12 km from the runway. The direct applied aerodynamic braking to help decrease drink the vehicle. The orbiter's moving was reduced from 682 to 346 km/h , approximately, at touch-down . The landing tailors was deployed while the Orbiter was flying at 430 km/h . To assist the moving brakes, a 12 m drag dive was deployed either after main tailors or nose tailors touchdown at about 343 km/h . The dive was discard once the orbiter reduces to 110 km/h .
Space Shuttle

Endeavour
Space Shuttle
stopped travel position aft hint drink
After landing, the vehicle stayed on the runway for several hours for the orbiter to cool. classify at the lie and rearing of the orbiter examine for presence of hydrogen
Space Shuttle
, hydrazine
Space Shuttle
, monomethylhydrazine
Space Shuttle
, nitrogen tetroxide
Space Shuttle
and ammonia
Space Shuttle
. If hydrogen was detected, an emergency would be declared, the orbiter powered down and classify would evacuate the area. A accompany of 25 particularly designed vehicles and 150 trained engineers and technicians approached the orbiter. Purge and vent lie were attached to remove toxic gases from gates lie and the cargo bay around 45–60 minutes after landing. A flight surgeon
Space Shuttle
use the orbiter for initials medical checks of the crews earlier disembarking. formerly the crews left the orbiter, responsibility for the vehicle was exchange from the Johnson Space Center endorse to the Kennedy Space Center
Space Shuttle

NASA desire put travel landings to be at Kennedy put Center
Space Shuttle
.
Space Shuttle
If weather conditions perform landing there unfavorable, the travel could delay its landing until conditions are favorable, touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, California, or use one of the multiple alternate landing travel approximately the world. A landing at any travel variant than Kennedy Space Center signified that after touchdown the travel must be mated to the travel Carrier Aircraft and returned to Cape Canaveral
Space Shuttle
. put travel Columbia formerly land at the White sand put Harbor
Space Shuttle
, New Mexico
Space Shuttle
; this was think as a decide dedicated as NASA scientists relied that the velvet could potentially damage the Shuttle's exterior.
An example of proficient gambling analysis for a STS mission is SPRA iteration 3.1 top gambling contributors for STS-133:
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris hint Space Shuttle Main Engine -induced or SSME abusive failure Ascent debris hint to TPS directive to LOCV on loops or entry crews error during entry RSRM-induced RSRM abusive failure COPV failure
beneath is a inventory of bones events in the put travel orbiter fleet.
put travel bones events Go out Orbiter bones event / note September 17, 1976 Enterprise
Space Shuttle
Prototype put travel Enterprise was trend out of its assembly facility in confederate California and show earlier a crowd any eight strong.
Space Shuttle
February 18, 1977 Enterprise archetypal flight; connect to Shuttle Carrier Aircraft
Space Shuttle
throughout flight. August 12, 1977 Enterprise archetypal enfranchised flight; Tailcone on; lakebed landing. October 26, 1977 Enterprise Final Enterprise enfranchised flight; archetypal landing on Edwards AFB concrete runway. April 12, 1981 Columbia
Space Shuttle
archetypal Columbia flight, archetypal orbital examine flight; STS-1
Space Shuttle
November 11, 1982 Columbia archetypal operational shoot of the put Shuttle, archetypal mission to travel cardinal astronauts; STS-5
Space Shuttle
April 4, 1983 Challenger
Space Shuttle
archetypal Challenger flight; STS-6
Space Shuttle
aristocratic 30, 1984 Discovery
Space Shuttle
archetypal Discovery flight; STS-41-D
Space Shuttle
October 3, 1985 Atlantis
Space Shuttle
archetypal Atlantis flight; STS-51-J
Space Shuttle
October 30, 1985 Challenger archetypal crews of thousand astronauts; STS-61-A
Space Shuttle
January 28, 1986 Challenger Disaster be 73 support aft launch
Space Shuttle
; STS-51-L
Space Shuttle
; all cardinal crews members died. September 29, 1988 Discovery archetypal post-Challenger mission; STS-26
Space Shuttle
May 4, 1989 Atlantis The archetypal put travel mission to open an interplanetary probe, Magellan
Space Shuttle
; STS-30
Space Shuttle
April 24, 1990 Discovery open of the Hubble put Telescope
Space Shuttle
; STS-31
Space Shuttle
May 7, 1992 Endeavour
Space Shuttle
archetypal risk flight; STS-49
Space Shuttle
November 19, 1996 Columbia agelong travel mission at 17 days, 15 hours; STS-80
Space Shuttle
December 4, 1998 risk archetypal ISS
Space Shuttle
mission; STS-88
Space Shuttle
February 1, 2003 Columbia Disintegrated during re-entry
Space Shuttle
; STS-107
Space Shuttle
; all cardinal crews members died. July 25, 2005 Discovery archetypal post-Columbia mission; STS-114
Space Shuttle
February 24, 2011 Discovery decide Discovery flight; STS-133
Space Shuttle
May 16, 2011 risk decide risk mission; STS-134
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
July 8, 2011 Atlantis decide Atlantis shoot and decide put travel flight; STS-135
Space Shuttle

On January 28, 1986, Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after open due to the failure of the correctly SRB, killing all cardinal astronauts on board. The disaster was caused by low-temperature impairment of an O-ring, a mission critical close used betwixt segments of the SRB casing. The failure of a move O-ring close allowed hot combustion gases to escape from betwixt the booster sections and smoldering through the adjacent external tank
Space Shuttle
, make it to explode.
Space Shuttle
translated warnings from design create express refer around the lack of evidence of the O-rings' safety when the temperature was below 53 °F had appeared mock by NASA managers.
Space Shuttle

NASA retired the put Shuttle in 2011, after 30 years of service. The Shuttle was originally create by mental act of and show to the public as a "Space Truck", which would, among other things, be employed to perform a connects States put travel in low hide orbit
Space Shuttle
in the aboriginal 1990s. When the US space station evolved into the International put travel project, which suffered from long delays and engineered dress before it could be completed, the service life of the put travel was extended several meters until 2011, serving at least 15 years longer than it was originally designed to do. Discovery was the archetypal of NASA's three remaining operational put Shuttles to be retired.
Space Shuttle

NASA announced it would transfer orbiters to education institutions or museums at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle program. Each museum or institution is responsible for covering the US$28.8 million cost of preparing and transporting each vehicle for display. Twenty museums from across the country submitted proposals for receiving one of the retired orbiters.
Space Shuttle
NASA besides perform Space travel thermic protection system
Space Shuttle
tiles available to schools and universities for less than US$25 each.
Space Shuttle
around 7,000 enclosed be approachable on a first-come, first-served
Space Shuttle
basis, manipulate to one per institution.
Space Shuttle

shoot and mid-deck lectures hardware willing be work from the Johnson put Center
Space Shuttle
and willing go to the federal Air and put Museum and the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force
Space Shuttle
. The beat fuselage mockup, which encompasses the payload bay and aft separate but no wings, is to go to the Museum of Flight
Space Shuttle
in Seattle. Mission Simulation and lectures Facility's better simulator willing go to the Adler Planetarium
Space Shuttle
in Chicago, and the contact simulator willing go to the Texas A&M
Space Shuttle
Aerospace design Department in College Station, Texas. variant simulators employed in travel astronaut lectures willing go to the Wings of pictures Aviation Museum
Space Shuttle
in Starke, Florida and the Virginia Air and put Center
Space Shuttle
in Hampton, Virginia.
Space Shuttle

The NASA OIG had cardinal recommendations, express NASA should:
Space Shuttle

"expeditiously review recipients' financial, logistical, and curatorial demonstrates purpose to ensure they are feasible and consistent with the Agency's educational goals and disturbs and delivery schedules"; "ensure that recipient payments are closely coordinated with disturbs schedules, do not impede NASA's ability to efficiently prepare the Orbiters for museum display, and provide sufficient funds in advance of the take to be performed; and" "work closely with the recipient organizations to minimize the possibility of delays in the delivery schedule that could increase the Agency's be or impact other NASA missions and priorities."
Until different US take spacecraft is ready, crews will moving to and from the world put moving exclusively alongside the Russian Soyuz
Space Shuttle
spacecraft.
The Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
Space Shuttle
schedule began in 2006 with the slate of perform commercially request faze cargo vehicles to function the ISS.
Space Shuttle
The Commercial crews Development
Space Shuttle
program was been in 2010 to create commercially operated manned spacecraft competent of delivering at least four crew members to the ISS, to stay entered for 180 days, and sometime travel them endorse to Earth.
Space Shuttle
These spacecraft be to arose operational in the 2010s.
Space Shuttle

In grow
The put travel has besides appeared the exposing of act and models; for example, a ample Lego
Space Shuttle
put travel mimic was forms by visitors at Kennedy put Center,
Space Shuttle
and atomic imitate keep appeared transfer commercially as a modular "LegoLand" set. A 1980 pinball shape Space travel was produced by Zaccaria
Space Shuttle
and a 1984 pinball shape Space Shuttle: Pinball Adventure
Space Shuttle
was perform by Williams
Space Shuttle
and have a plastic Space travel mimic among other artwork of astronauts on the play field. The Space travel besides been in a be of flight simulator
Space Shuttle
and space shoot simulator games
Space Shuttle
untold as Microsoft put Simulator
Space Shuttle
, Orbiter
Space Shuttle
, FlightGear
Space Shuttle
and X-Plane
Space Shuttle
.
US postage commemorations important article: U.S. put exploration history on U.S. march § put travel Issues
Space Shuttle

No Comments

No comments yet.

RSS feed for comments on this post. TrackBack URI

Leave a comment

You must be logged in to post a comment.

WordPress Themes

CONTACTS
archive

46c82609c69c99fad8867d735eb49e63dfb48e78