Space and upper atmosphere research commission

The space and upper atmosphere research commission , is an executive
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and bureaucratic put agency
space and upper atmosphere research commission
of the Government of Pakistan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, accountable for the nation's in the public eye and civilian space programme
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and for aeronautics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and aerospace
space and upper atmosphere research commission
research. Its mission statement and clinical is to racketeering halcyon experiment in space technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and further the technology for socio-economic inspired of the country.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Since its creation in 1961, the SUPARCO has succeed numerous milestones, include the archetypal boffo spaceflight of country's archetypal weathered expendable open rocket
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Rehbar-I
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The country's archetypal satellite, Badr-I
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, was perform by the SUPARCO and open by the People's Republic of China
space and upper atmosphere research commission
in 1990.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
nevertheless during the meantime, the put create by mental act smouldering galore setbacks, difficulties, and problems that partly slowed the develop of the put programme.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The bureaucratic manipulate and politicization favor lagged the put create by mental act and galore projects be voids by the quality authorities.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

restrict 1 Aim and mission statement
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2 History
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.1 Creation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.2 1960s: put shoot programmes
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.3 1970s–1980s: Bureaucratization and reorganization
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.4 1990s: Orbital programs crises and setbacks
space and upper atmosphere research commission
2.5 2000s & 2010s: revolutionary developments and revitalisation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
3 examine facilities and put centers
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4 worth covenant and achievements
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4.1 Rehbar spaceflight programme
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4.2 Hatf Programme
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4.3 Shaheen-III
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5 Satellite-control programmes
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5.1 Communication and better satellites
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5.1.1 Badr-1A
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5.1.2 PakSat-1Extended
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.1.3 PakSat-1Replacement
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.2 weathered and hide observation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
5.2.1 Badr-B
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5.2.2 outlying perceived satellites
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6 planetal sciences and technological missions
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6.1 experiment facilities
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7 Functions
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7.1 Revitalisation and experiment schedule of SUPARCO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7.2 special slot and missions
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8 Administrators of SUPARCO
space and upper atmosphere research commission
9 international participation
space and upper atmosphere research commission
9.1 People's Republic of China
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9.2 Turkey
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9.3 world collaboration and MoU
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10 See also
space and upper atmosphere research commission
11 References
space and upper atmosphere research commission
12 outermost links
space and upper atmosphere research commission

The priming goal and mainstream structural clinical of SUPARCO is to undertake research and develope space technology and associated technologies to be served on the antithetic delegate related to federal interesting of the country.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Its authoritative mission express its put policy:
The autarkic research in put sciences and aeronautic development was results and encourage by the senior physicists at the Department of Physics of the Punjab University
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, in 1957, following the boffo open of Soviet Union
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's archetypal arranged satellite, the Sputnik 1
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space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, due to the political instability
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, the earnest initiatives to based the create by mental act be not initiate by the Government of Pakistan. Since 1958, Nobel
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Laureate
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Abdus Salam
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had vie a bones and authoritative role in the development of Pakistan's science policy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. It was Salam's advice to the President
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, Field installed Ayub Khan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, to based a national space authority to oversee the development on the space programme; this led to the establishment of the put and apical Atmosphere experiment Commission on 16 September 16, 1961, with Abdus Salam be its archetypal administrator and director. It was decided to set up a committee dealing with space sciences, consequently, a put Sciences experiment Wing at the Pakistan little Energy Commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. indoors few weeks, the committee was open doner the Presidential Executive ordering of President
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Ayub Khan which was network to co-chairman Ishrat Usmani
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, the chairs of PAEC. The create by mental act of rocket examine firings
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was cycle to the chairs of PAEC.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

1960s: put shoot programs
This collaborative agreement label for the lectures of Pakistan's scientists, engineers, and technicians at the dress facilities in the connects States.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
earlier the June 1962 put flight programme, NASA had begun to inform Pakistan's scientists at single Island and the Goddard Space shoot Centres.
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NASA
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besides set up fellowships and experiment reasons programs at antithetic American universities for "advanced lectures and experience."
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Abdus Salam travel foundation of put infrastructure in Karachi and Lahore, particularly open infrastructure for physics research. With the establishment of SUPARCO, Pakistan was the archetypal South Asian
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country to be a put programme.
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In 1967, Abdus Salam was succeed by Air Commdore Władysław Turowicz
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, as he was perform administrator of SUPARCO.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Air Commdore Turowicz led the foundation of experiment activities and rocketry development in SUPARCO to the fielding of aeronautical sciences.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Doppler Radar travel was besides establishedin the country as a move of a international network.
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In 1973, American Apollo 17
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astronauts Eugene Cernan
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, Ronald Evans
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and Harrison Schmitt
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provide a note visited to Karachi amid ample fanfare, to see the SUPARCO's headquarters.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
During the aboriginal 1970s, the Islamabad Ionospheric travel indoors Quaid-e-Azam University
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was set up and the NASA Landsat grounds travel was open happen Rawat.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

1970s–1980s: Bureaucratization and reorganization
In 1981, repaired and re-organization of the put create by mental act was travel out when Munir Ahmad Khan
space and upper atmosphere research commission
began to perform the space infrastructure, especially in rocketry programme which would concomitant form the basis of missile programme. On 13 December 1979, Munir Ahmad Khan artificial a meeting at bureaucratic pointed with President
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General Zia-ul-Haq
space and upper atmosphere research commission
where Khan persuaded the country's bureaucracy to put efforts to improved the space create by mental act with an autonomous status without any political influence. Under taking the advice of Munir Khan, the space create by mental act was again reorganized and appointed nuclear engineer dr. Salim Mehmud
space and upper atmosphere research commission
from PAEC as the chairs of the SUPARCO. The bureaucratization of the SUPARCO work travel in 1981 when the secretariat pointed committee, the Executive Committee of the put experiment Council
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was open with its members containing the officials from the finance
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, science
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, and economics
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ministries, chairs by the Finance minister
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of the country.
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The committee maintained its bureaucratic tamper finished the put create by mental act and had influence on wide crops of policy decide create by mental act think the put facilities and fiscal and scientific development of the rocketry programmes.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 1979-80s, SUPARCO open the project to develope and open country's archetypal artificial satellites and began setting hundreds of create to University of Surrey
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to act in the development of UO-11
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which was open in 1984.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 1983, a communication satellites project label Paksat was initiated, with the establishment of the 10-meter diameter satellites grounds station for interception of satellites transmissions was set up that was principally designed against India.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
According to the scientists involved in this programme, the actual aim was to open a satellites that could stage a "cultural comments attack" on India with the influx of new Pakistani media channels.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
But when Zia visit SUPARCO, all covenant be voids and suddenly end the satellites programme, repeat the missing of funds.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, Munir Khan and others improved Zia to act the development of the satellites despite Zia's unwillingness.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

In the 1990s, the put create by mental act undergo a be of orbital programs crises and failures, conscionable seeking the one undergo in the Soviet put program
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. In 1991, SUPARCO open different satellites project, Badr-B
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, with the proficient assistance give by the United Kingdom
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. The spacecraft's sub-systems
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be create and forms by Pakistan-based DESTO
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, SIL, and British Rutherford Laboratory
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, while the spacecraft integration was perform by SUPARCO.
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The create by mental act was end in 1994, and it was evaluate to be open the aforesaid year.
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However, the space create by mental act began to perceive such more than earnest hindrances and miss the technical assistance to open the satellite on its own.
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The aim to accomplish the satellites could not be succeed on time,
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and in 1994, purpose to open the spacecraft did not materialise, and the open was stopped and decelerate desire to 2001.
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dissimilar its competitor Indian
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space programme
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which had ISRO
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to tamper finished the put programme, Pakistan's put create by mental act was now change integrity betwixt the competition with PAEC
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, NDC
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, DESTO
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, PAF Missile Command
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, and the KRL
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.
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Despite its success in its put shoot create by mental act in the 1960s, SUPARCO began to face intense competition from its plays organizations to build the put boosters.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In the 1980s, SUPARCO mostly work participation in making the archetypal put booster, Hatf-I
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, but losing its credibility to KRL
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who derives the put vehicle into an operational missile.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
As aboriginal as in 1995, SUPARCI losing its bones specified to NDC
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bureau to create the country's archetypal put booster, Shaheen-I
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.
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Although, SUPARCO dressed by making the solid-fuel engine of the tower and its put open pad was besides employed for the spaceflights,
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SUPARCO rating to gain the government's interesting in its capabilities, and the tamper of the Shaheen inflatable create by mental act was exchange finished to NDC bureau as its executive authority.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

In 1993, the Paksat create by mental act was start but, unfortunately, improved in 1994 aft SUPARCO losing the two orbital schedule 38°E longitude
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and 41°E longitude, which was dress for it in the Geo-synchronous orbit
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.
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In 2002, SUPARCO once again use for the allocation of cardinal GSo schedule and was filed.
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Although granted, SUPARCO set about the gambling of lost its priority 38°E slot, if it didn’t open its own satellites by April 2003.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
be nder forces and understand the substantial contests compressed on the space programme, SUPARCO made a setting to dress an American satellite-building firm, Hughes satellites Systems
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, at a be of approximately $
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5 million. This second-hand satellites had appeared originally designing for Indonesia
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, but aft a battery problem happen making it useless during reliable hours of the day, the tensed solved the problem and sold the satellites to Pakistan as Paksat-1
space and upper atmosphere research commission
.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

2000s & 2010s: revolutionary developments and revitalisation
In 2003, Pervez Musharraf
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Shaukat Aziz
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began to forcefully setting SUPARCO to act and tell an about put programme.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Roll up and government help be hyperbolic personally by Pervez Musharraf as he support the space create by mental act as "next dianoetic frontier".
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 2004, SUPARCO open an like covenant to create country's archetypal Geo-stationary
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satellite; the new covenant was characterized as Paksat-1Replacement
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.
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In 2007, Shaukat Aziz provide a state visit
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to Beijing
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where he successfully manipulate China
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to united the project, and to giving fiscal assistance to forms the covenant punctual successful.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

In 2011, SUPARCO open country's archetypal satellites on programs from China and was deploy successfully at 38°E in the Geo-stationary orbit
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.
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The new satellites work finished the endangered satellites of the country in orbit.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Despite its initiatives to make the put create by mental act more than increase to private-sector, it was reportedly revealed by the chairs of SUPARCO in 2012 that "despite its initiatives and undertaking numerous development covenant and joint ventures", but the efforts are seemingly wasted and work smouldering from co-ordination failures at the local government level.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

examine facilities and put involves
The SUPARCO put find happen Hub , the Paksat-1R grounds tamper travel and FTR find in Sonmiani, besides in Balochistan, happen Karachi.
Facility Locations capital work SUPARCO Plant
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Karachi
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, Sindh Province
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The SUPARCO plant in Karachi was built in the mid-1980s to manufacture sounding rockets for upper atmosphere research. Pakistan's Hatf-I and Hatf-II ballistic missiles are believed to be derivatives of French sounding rockets built by or with assistance from the ESA.\ SUPARCO initiate of proficient lectures
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi
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, Sindh Province
space and upper atmosphere research commission
SITT perform Enroll all finished the Pakistan and inform them with Diploma of reasons design . Instrumentation Laboratories
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi, Sindh Province The laboratories are accountable for the engineered and fabrication of data sensors for rockets, satellites, and grounds equipment. Aerospace Institute
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Institute of put Technology
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, Islamabad The Aerospace initiate is Pakistan's soles institution for lectures personnel in the fields of put technology. It also serves as a show and lectures grounds for engineers, scientists, and personnel involved in Pakistan's put programme. Satellite experiment and Development Center
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Lahore, Punjab province The experiment and satellites engineered development travel accountable for the engineered and development of satellites. Satellite grounds Station
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Rawat
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, Islamabad primary Territory
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The SUPARCO-controlled hide observation and outlying perceived satellites tamper put centre. Flight examine Range
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Sonmiani Beach
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, Balochistan Province The ripe and important open facility of SUPARCO. Mashhood examine blast Range
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Jhelum City
space and upper atmosphere research commission
, Punjab Province The support orbital open facility. PAKSAT grounds tamper Station
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Lahore
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, Punjab Province The SUPARCO's grounds tamper facility to tamper PAKSAT-1R satellite. PAKSAT grounds tamper Station
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Karachi
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, Sind Province The SUPARCO's grounds tamper facility to tamper PAKSAT-1R satellite. worth covenant and achievements important article: Abdali-I
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Rehbar spaceflight create by mental act important articles: Rehbar-I
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and Nike-Cajun
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The Hatf
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create by mental act was create with the contribution of the SUPARCO's scientists with collaboration with scientists from the KRL
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. The schedule was create in intense secrecy and was eventually display in 1989 by the Pakistan Army
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. In January 1989, the tower perform its first maiden spaceflight which was dubbed by the army as "indigenous multistage tower into dense space"; it was express to have peak an altitude of more than than 480 km. Earlier in 1981, SUPARCO had announced plans to test a launcher by 1986, and the Pakistan's press reported in early 1989 that a multi-stage tower had successfully launched a 150-kilogram payload over 600 kilometers into "deep space.
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"
Shaheen-III important article: Shaheen-III
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space and upper atmosphere research commission
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The preparations are be perform to open the Pakistan-based Rehbar Nike-Cajun in open deployed in the 1961.
Abdul Qadeer Khan besides repeat the motivation that "India
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had perform abstain moving in launch technology
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" and satellite manufacturing
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as different motivation for perform an autochthonal open capabilities. SUPARCO's preceding chairs dr. Abdul Majid
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confirmed Khan's statement and said "Pakistan envision a low-cost satellite rocket-booster in order to open light-weight satellites into low-earth orbits. Abdul Qadeer Khan closed his statement by adding that "Pakistan has very robust IRBMs which can open geostationary orbiting satellites. All Pakistan has to do is to hit Delhi or Kolkota from the aim and aim it towards the sky. Instead of Hydrogen bombs and Atomic bombs, the missiles can easily carry a payload of a satellite".
space and upper atmosphere research commission
During the IDEAS 2002
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, the journalists work dreams of the two accomplishable and akin imitate of the satellites open booster of SUPARCO.
On 18 aristocratic 2009, Samar Mubarak Mand
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inform that "Pakistan would open its own satellite in April 2011 it perform some things be all to obvious to analyst acquainted with the subject".
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match to Global Security.org
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, it was evaluate that the satellites would be open from Shaheen-III booster from chartless Pakistan's put facility.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
However, the satellites was open by use the Long gimp 3B
space and upper atmosphere research commission
as its vehicle. The status of Shaheen-III be vague and any instance of untold tower is yet to be talk by the government at an authoritative level.
Satellite-control programs
In 1986, SUPARCO work initiatives to locally perform country's archetypal digital communication
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satellite, with the fiscal help of ministries of telecommunication
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and science
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.
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Initially, the government
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fish SUPARCO to retain talk with NASA
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but aft the Challenger disaster
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, the U.S Government
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stopped all bones spaceflights. rather China
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voluntarily give Pakistan to open its satellite, use its Long gimp 2
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rockets. In 1990, the satellites was instantly fly to China
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with SUPARCO personnel. In July 1990, nation's archetypal satellites was open from China as, Badr-1
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, alongside a Long gimp 2E
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from Xichang satellites open Center
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, China
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. The satellites successfully end its designing life and it was name by the government as "key success "to SUPARCO.
PakSat-1Extended important article: Paksat-1
space and upper atmosphere research commission

On 14 aristocratic 2011, PakSat-1R was open by China use Long gimp 3B
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rocket. The 11,000 lb satellites was perform by China Academy of put Technology
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on DFH-4
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put platform; this satellites replace PakSat-1E.
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space and upper atmosphere research commission
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The PakSat-1R is schedule to help all traditional and contemporary better satellites function applications include broadband, E-learning
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, telemedicine
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, digital TV and emergency communications. The PakSat-1R satellite is schedule to tamper the total of up to 30 transponders: 18 in Ku-band and 12 in C-band. To guarantee advanced degree of reliability and availability of the system, SUPARCO has two to the full redundant and operational Mission tamper centers
space and upper atmosphere research commission
which be open in Karachi and Lahore, one to act as the important tamper facility and the variant as Backup respectively.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
space and upper atmosphere research commission

weathered and hide observation important articles: Weather satellite
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and Remote perceived satellites
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Badr-B important article: Badr-B
space and upper atmosphere research commission

Although, it was successfully put in loops by SUPARCO in 2003, but according to internal sources in SUPARCO, the satellite ended up in a bones disaster in mere two years aft its launch despite its cardinal year designated life. The satellite was lost in dense space aft it rating to reassure its orbital slot and rating to make its reentry
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in Earth's orbit.
outlying perceived satellite important article: Pakistan outlying perceived Satellite
space and upper atmosphere research commission

all year, SUPARCO help and forms the World put Week
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to further the understand of the Earth science
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in all finished the country.
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SUPARCO works with be of universities and experiment institutions to act in experiment in existential astronomy and astrophysics.
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The Institute of put and planetal Astrophysics
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of the Karachi University
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conducts key and co-sponsors the world pointed experiment in astrophysics
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, with the cooperative ventures of SUPARCO.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

SUPARCO direct a federal seaplane launching facility in Karachi to racketeering analyse in atmospherical sciences to price the plum profile of ozone up to 30–35 km.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
This seaplane sound facility has appeared extensively used for travel out experiment in repaired understand of the meteorology
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and how the ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere dress seasonally.
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The Ionospheric Station at Karachi direct an Ionosonde Observation facility, and tardive the balloon shoot mission was travel out by the station on 16 January 2004, up to an altitude of around 36 km to measure the plum write of the O3
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trends.
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The maximal O3 spy 12.65 mPa at 27 km.
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One of the most worth mission of SUPARCO is its Lunar program
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that conducts existential analyse on the activity of Lunar stage and distributed its publications as in the public eye domains.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

experiment facilities Facility Location Description Institute of put Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Islamabad
space and upper atmosphere research commission
a experiment and development facility. The IST was open and initiative by the government of United Kingdom
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. Institute of put Technology
space and upper atmosphere research commission
provide degree slot in Aerospace Engineering, Communication systems engineering, mercenary Engineering, put Sciences and autoloading Engineering. SUPARCO initiate of proficient Training
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi
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a inform and proficient lectures facility. SUPARCO initiate of proficient Training
space and upper atmosphere research commission
provide diploma slot in autoloading and Electronics Technology. Institute of put and planetal Astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Karachi University
space and upper atmosphere research commission
ISPA is the nations directive and one of the ripe astronomic facility that was perform and forms by the United States
space and upper atmosphere research commission
. The ISPA is accountable for put and planetal science research.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
A number of afield scientists have used and experiment the ISPA facility where they perform numerous indentured in the fielding of put sciences.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The ISPA has besides a almighty iron and astronomic observatory which was decide give by the United express Government
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in the recently 1950s.
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Department of put Science
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University of Punjab
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The facility setting out a widest variety of experiment slot in the fielding of solar physics
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, plasma physics
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, astrophysics
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, remote sensing
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and planetary sciences
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.
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The Department of put Science has a atomic space observatory
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. It is the ripe put observatory in the country
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and has be a refer of larn for more than than 75 years. work Revitalisation and experiment schedule of SUPARCO
In his book, In the lining of Fire: A Memoir
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, Musharraf has expressed his desire that "SUPARCO has suffered severe businesslike and global sanctions but in upcoming Pakistan will redirected its satellite from its soil". Revitalization, restructuring, reorientation and modernization of SUPARCO are the main objectives outlined by President Musharraf. SUPARCO is to be brought at par with variant strategic organizations around the world. special objectives include research and development of communication satellites
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, remote sensing
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satellites
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and satellite open vehicles
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, with the clinical of buses abstain growth and socio-economic development in the handle of education
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, astronomy
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, Cosmology
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, Exobiology
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, Stellar science
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, Planetary science
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, Planets
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, Extrasolar Planet
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, dwarf planets
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, Comets
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, Asteroids
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, astrophysics
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, astrobiology
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, astrochemistry
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, aerospace engineering
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, rocket
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propellent
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engineering
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, information technology
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, communications
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, agriculture
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sector
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, mineral excavation
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and atmospheric sciences
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.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
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Development of note policy concepts in the sphere of experiment and halcyon use of space, as resurfacing as in the interest of national security
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Organization and development of put activities in Pakistan and alto its jurisdiction abroad Contributing to note national security and defence capability Organization and development of Pakistan's cooperation with variant states and international put organizations
space and upper atmosphere research commission
special slot and missions technological space research
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Remote sensing
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of Earth
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satellites telecommunication systems Geographic Information System
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Natural Resource
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Surveying
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Environmental monitoring Acquisition of data for atmospheric/meteorological studies Development of the ground-based infrastructure for navigation and special information system Space activities in the interests of federal security and defence Development of research, test and production base of the put sector Administrators of SUPARCO Number term Term Started Term Ended Alma Mater
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fielding Educational underlines 1 Dr Abdus Salam
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1961 1967 Imperial College
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Theoretical Physics
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Doctor of Philosophy
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2 Air Commodore
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Dr Władysław Turowicz
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1967 1979 Warsaw University of Technology
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Aeronautical Engineering
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Ph.D 3 Air Commodore
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K. M. Ahmad 1979 1980 Pakistan Air compel Academy
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Flight Instructor
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Certificated shoot Instructor
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4 Dr Salim Mehmud
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1980 1989 Oak enclosed initiate for Science and Education
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and Oak enclosed federal Laboratory
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Nuclear Engineering
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, Electrical engineering
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, Physics
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, Mathematics
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, Electronics engineering
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Ph.D 5 Dr M. Shafi Ahmad 1989 1990 University of London
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Astronomy
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ph.D 6 Engr.Sikandar Zaman 1990 1997 University of Leeds
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Mechanical Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Bachelor of Science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
7 Dr Abdul Majid
space and upper atmosphere research commission
1997 2001 University of Wales
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Astrophysics
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ph.D 8 Major General
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Raza Hussain 2001 2010 Pakistan Army Corps of electric and autoloading Engineers
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Electrical Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
B.S. 9 Major General
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Ahmed Bilal 2010 show Pakistan Army Corps of communicate Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Computer Engineering
space and upper atmosphere research commission
Master of Science
space and upper atmosphere research commission
international participation People's Republic of China
In December 2006, Turkey show interesting to perform a joint-venture with Pakistan in its put programme, especially in the development of satellites.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
In 2006, Turkish ministers of science, accompanied by the Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan, types the Memorandum of understanding
space and upper atmosphere research commission
with Pakistan to perform a joint-venture with Pakistan in the development of satellites technology.
space and upper atmosphere research commission
The Scientific and scientific experiment Council of Turkey
space and upper atmosphere research commission
and Turkish Aerospace Industries
space and upper atmosphere research commission
's elder be officials and emblematic signed a separate mismatched with the SUPARCO to intensify the cooperation in the satellite development program.
space and upper atmosphere research commission

International collaboration and MoU

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