Nasa

Coordinates
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: 38°52′59″N 77°0′59″W / 38.88306°N 77.01639°W / 38.88306; -77.01639
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federal Aeronautics and put Administration
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close of nasa
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nasa insignia
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Motto: For the get of All
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initial of nasa Agency overview perform July 29, 1958; 56 years ago  above Agency NACA
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Jurisdiction United express government
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give Washington, D.C.
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38°52′59″N 77°0′59″W / 38.88306°N 77.01639°W / 38.88306; -77.01639
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Employees 18,100+
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Annual budget US$17.8 billion
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See besides nasa Budget
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Agency executive Charles Bolden
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, administrator
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Website nasa.gov
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See more
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President
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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open the federal Aeronautics and put Administration in 1958
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with a clearly civil orientation facilitated halcyon applications in put science. The National Aeronautics and put Act
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was travel on July 29, 1958, deprive nasa's predecessor, the National enlightening Committee for Aeronautics
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. The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.
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nasa science is focussed on repaired understand hide doner the Earth detects System
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,
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moving heliophysics
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doner the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics experiment Program,
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analyse embody passim the Solar System
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with high robotic missions untold as New Horizons
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,
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and investigate astrophysics
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topics, untold as the Big Bang
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, doner the Great Observatories
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and think programs.
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nasa pools data with antithetic federal and world organizations untold as from the Greenhouse contend detects Satellite
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.
Creation important article: Creation of nasa
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1963 photo show Dr. William H. Pickering, JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, . nasa Administrator crowd Webb in background. They are enclosed the Mariner program
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, with a mimic presented.
On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower types the National Aeronautics and put Act
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, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, nasa absorbed the 46-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories and two small test facilities.
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A nasa seal
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was accept by President Eisenhower in 1959.
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Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
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and the United express Naval experiment Laboratory
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be increase into NASA. A momentous contributor to nasa's entry into the Space Race
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with the Soviet yankee was the technology from the German tower program
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led by Wernher von Braun
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, who was now work for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
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, which in trend increase the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard
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's before works.
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before experiment efforts indoors the U.S. Air Force
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and galore of ARPA's aboriginal put slot be besides delegate to nasa.
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In December 1958, nasa obtain tamper of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
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, a contractor facility request by the California initiate of Technology
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.
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put shoot slot
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At open tamper for the May 28, 1964, Saturn I SA-6 launch
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. Wernher von Braun
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is at center. important article: List of nasa missions
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The experimental rocket-powered aircraft
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slot been by NACA be increase by nasa as help for take spaceflight. This was followed by a one-man space capsule
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program, and in trend by a two-man shrouded program. act to loss of federal prestige and security
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worry perform by aboriginal stolen in put exploration by the Soviet Union
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, in 1961 President John F. Kennedy
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declare the difficult goal "of land a man on the lazing by the end of , and moving him safely to the Earth." This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program
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, and nasa purpose flat more than difficult activities directive to a manned mission to Mars
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. However, reduction of the perceived threat and habit governmental priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary put laboratory, and a semi-reusable Earth orbital shuttle. In the 1990s, roll up was approved for nasa to develop a abiding Earth orbital space station
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in cooperation with the world community, which now include the former rival, post-Soviet Russia
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. To date, nasa has open a average of 166 take put missions on rockets, and eight X-15
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tower eagle preparatory the USAF
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definition of spaceflight altitude, 260,000 feet .
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X-15 tower cut important article: North American X-15
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X-15 in enfranchised shoot
cardinal direct be decide for the program from the Air Force, Navy, and NACA . A total of 199 eagle be perform betwixt 1959 and 1968, resulting in the official multinational record
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for the advanced moving always peak by a take give aircraft
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), and a maximal moving of Mach 6.72, 4,519 miles per hour .
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The altitude logs for X-15 was 354,200 feet .
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thousand of the direct be award Air compel astronaut wings
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for moving preparatory 260,000 feet , and two eagle by Joseph A. Walker
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transcend 100 kilometers , serves as spaceflight match to the International aeronautic Federation
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. The X-15 schedule utilised autoloading techniques employed in the concomitant take spaceflight programs, include reaction tamper system
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drain for manipulate the orientation of a spacecraft, improved space suits
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, and horizon definition for navigation.
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The reentry
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and land data had be invaluable to nasa for designed the Space Shuttle
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.
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covenant Mercury important article: Project Mercury
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Friendship 7, nasa's archetypal take orbital spaceflight
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Mercury-Atlas 6 open on February 20, 1962
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comforts enclose of John Glenn in loops from camera within Friendship 7
When nasa was perform that aforesaid year, the Air compel schedule was delegate to it and term covenant Mercury. The first cardinal astronauts
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be decide among candidates from the Navy, Air compel and oversea examine direct programs. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard
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became the archetypal American in put alongside Freedom 7
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, open by a Redstone booster
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on a 15-minute ballistic
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flight.
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John Glenn
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became the archetypal American to be open into orbit
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by an Atlas open vehicle
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on February 20, 1962 alongside Friendship 7
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.
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Glenn end cardinal orbits, aft which cardinal more than orbital eagle be made, went in L. Gordon Cooper
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's 22-orbit shoot Faith 7
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, May 15–16, 1963.
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basing on analyse to branch the Mercury spacecraft capabilities to long-duration flights, perform space rendezvous
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techniques, and precision Earth landing, covenant Gemini was been as a two-man program in 1962 to get the better of the Soviets' stolen and to help the Apollo take lunar land program, increase extravehicular activity
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and rendezvous
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and docking
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to its objectives. The archetypal take Gemini flight, Gemini 3
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, was moving by Gus Grissom
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and John Young
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on gimp 23, 1965.
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cardinal missions followed in 1965 and 1966, demonstrating an endurance mission of nearly eight days, rendezvous, docking, and applicative EVA, and garner medical data on the perform of weightlessness on humans.
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The U.S public's perception of the Soviet stolen in setting the archetypal man in space, perform President John F. Kennedy
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to ask the Congress on May 25, 1961 to act the nationalist government to a schedule to beach a man on the lazing by the end of the 1960s, which efficaciously open the Apollo program
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.
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The support take mission, Apollo 8
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, travel astronauts for the archetypal quantify in a shoot approximately the lazing in December 1968.
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soon before, the Soviets had travel an faze spacecraft approximately the Moon.
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On the consecutive two missions entered manipulate that be necessitate for the Moon land be practiced
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and sometime eventually the lazing land was perform on the Apollo 11
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mission in July 1969.
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Apollo set bones milestones
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in hominid spaceflight. It be solitary in setting take missions beyond low hide orbit
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, and land humans on different celestial body
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.
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Apollo 8
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was the archetypal take spacecraft to loops different heavenly body, while Apollo 17
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attach the decide moonwalk and the decide take mission beyond low hide orbit
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to date. The schedule further moving in galore areas of technology marginal to rocketry and take spaceflight, include avionics
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, telecommunications, and computers. Apollo initiate interesting in galore fields of design and travel galore physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations passim the world, notably at the Smithsonian's Air and put Museums
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.
Skylab
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Skylab put station, 1974 important article: Skylab
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To save cost, nasa used one of the Saturn V rockets originally appropriate for a canceled Apollo mission to launch the Skylab. Apollo spacecraft were used for transporting astronauts to and from the station. Three three-man crews stayed aboard the station for periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Skylab's habitable volume was 11,290 cubic feet , which was 30.7 meters bigger than that of the Apollo general Module
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.
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Apollo-Soyuz examine covenant
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Apollo-Soyuz crew with imitate of spacecraft, 1975 important article: Apollo-Soyuz examine Project
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The mission include both cooperative and segment scientific experiments, and provided multipurpose design experiencing for upcoming cooperative US–Russian put flights, untold as the Shuttle–Mir Program
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and the world put Station.
put travel schedule important article: Space travel program
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Discovery liftoff, 2008
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Mission profile. Left: launch, top: loops , right: reentry and land
Its bones components be a spaceplane
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orbiter with an outermost gates have and two solid-fuel open rockets at its side. The outermost tank, which was bigger than the spacecraft itself, was the only component that was not reused. The travel could orbit in altitudes of 185–643 km
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and travel a maximal payload of 24,400 kg .
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Missions could decide from 5 to 17 days and crew could be from 2 to 8 astronauts.
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In 1995, Russian-American interaction act with the Shuttle-Mir
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missions . formerly more an American vehicle entered with a Russian craft, this quantify a full-fledged put station. This cooperation has act with Russia and the United States as two of the ample partners in the largest put station built: the International put Station
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. The strength of their cooperation on this project was flat more apparent when nasa began relied on Russian open vehicles to function the ISS during the two-year grounding of the travel fleet following the 2003 Space travel Columbia disaster
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.
The International put Station
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keep nasa's Space travel Freedom
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covenant with the Soviet/Russian Mir-2
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station, the European Columbus
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station, and the nipponese Kibō
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laboratory module.
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NASA originally purpose in the 1980s to develop Freedom alone, but US reason constraints led to the merger of these covenant into a only multi-national program in 1993, attain by nasa, the Russian nationalist put Agency
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, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
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, the European put Agency
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, and the Canadian put Agency
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.
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The travel be of improved modules, outermost trusses
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, solar arrays
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and variant components, which keep appeared open by Russian Proton
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and Soyuz
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rockets, and the US put Shuttles.
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It is currently be assembled
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in Low hide Orbit
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. The on-orbit assembly began in 1998, the completion of the US Orbital Segment
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happen in 2011 and the completion of the Russian Orbital Segment
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is evaluate by 2016.
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The ownership and use of the put travel is open in intergovernmental treaties and agreements
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which separate the travel into two areas and allowance Russia
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to underpinning beat ownership of the Russian Orbital filtered ,
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with the US Orbital filtered appropriate betwixt the variant world partners.
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The STS-131
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and Expedition 23
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crews members in April 2010
The travel can be perceive from the hide with the nude eye and, as of 2014
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, is the ample arranged satellites in Earth
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loops with a masses and volume ample than that of any preceding put station.
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The Soyuz
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spacecraft delivers crew members, been docked for their half-year desire missions and sometime moving them home. Several uncrewed cargo spacecraft function the ISS, they are the Russian Progress spacecraft
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which has perform so since 2000, the European Automated exchange Vehicle
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since 2008, the nipponese H-II exchange Vehicle
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since 2009, the American Dragon spacecraft
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since 2012, and the American Cygnus spacecraft
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since 2013. The Space Shuttle, before its retirement, was besides used for cargo transfer and would often switch out expedition crew members, although it did not keep the capability to remain entered for the duration of their stay. Until another US manned spacecraft is ready, crew members will travel to and from the International Space Station exclusively alongside the Soyuz.
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The highest be of populate take the ISS has appeared thirteen; this happen three meters during the late travel ISS assembly missions.
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The development of the commercialized Resupply servicing vehicles began in 2006 with the slate of perform American commercially request uncrewed cargo vehicles to function the ISS.
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The development of these vehicles was under a fixed price milestone-based program, convey that each company that received a roll up awards had a list of milestones with a dollar find attached to them that they didn't earn until after they had boffo end the milestone.
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clannish allies were also necessitate to have any "skin in the game" which think of increase an unspecified amount of clannish investment for their proposal.
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The Commercial crews Development
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schedule was forms in 2010 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated crewed spacecraft capable of disclose at least cardinal crew members to the ISS, staying entered for 180 days and then moving them endorse to Earth.
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It is hopes that these vehicles could besides buses non-nasa customers to clannish put stations untold those planned by Bigelow Aerospace
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.
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seeking COTS, CCDev is besides a fixed determined milestone-based developmental schedule that need any clannish investment.
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Dragon V2
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For missions beyond low hide orbit
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, nasa has appeared request to discipline the Space open System
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, a Saturn-V categorize rocket, and the two to six person, beyond low hide loops spacecraft, Orion
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. In February 2010, President Barack Obama
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's administration declare destroy in the public eye roll up for the Constellation program
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and improved ample responsibility of services the ISS to clannish companies.
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During a speech at the Kennedy put refer on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed a new heavy-lift vehicle to replaced the erst purpose Ares V
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.
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In his speech, Obama label for a take mission to an angular as shortly as 2025, and a take mission to dress loops by the mid-2030s.
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The nasa Authorization Act of 2010
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was travel by Congress and types into law on October 11, 2010.
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The act formally cancelled the Constellation program.
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Orion spacecraft engineered as of January 2013
Exploration shoot examine 1
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, an faze examine shoot of Orion's crews module, was open on December 5, 2014, atop a Delta IV Heavy
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rocket.
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Exploration Mission-1
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is the faze initials open of SLS that would besides redirected Orion on a circumlunar trajectory
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, which is purpose for 2017.
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The archetypal manned flight of Orion and SLS, Exploration Mission 2 is to open betwixt 2019 and 2021; it is a 10- to 14-day mission purpose to travel a crews of cardinal into Lunar orbit
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.
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As of gimp 2012, the destination for EM-3 and the bargain think for this new schedule is comforts in-flux.
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faze slot
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dense put mission deploy by Shuttle, 1989 important article: Unmanned nasa missions
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The archetypal US faze satellites was Explorer 1
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, which appeared as an ABMA/JPL covenant during the early space race. It was launched in January 1958, two months after Sputnik. At the creation of nasa the Explorer covenant was transferred to this agency and still continues to this day. Its missions have appeared think on the hide and the Sun, select magnetic handle and the solar wind
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, among variant aspects.
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A more than revolutionary hide mission, not think to the Explorer program, was the Hubble put Telescope
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, which as think of preparatory was travel into loops in 1990.
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The archetypal boffo land on dress was perform by Viking 1
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in 1976. eight years concomitant a rover was land on dress by Mars Pathfinder
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.
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debut 10 and 11 and any Voyager research travel network from the hide to extraterrestrial life.
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A problem with dense space travel is communication. For instance, it takes around 3 hours at present for a covenant signal to peak the New Horizons spacecraft at a point more than principal to Pluto.
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motion with debut 10 was losing in 2003. Both Voyager research continue to operate as they analyse the outer boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.
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Artist's concept of nasa's agile Payload research and M-Cubed/COVE-2 satellite that be open as move of the NROL-39 GEMSat mission in December 2013.
nasa's ongoing investigations includes in-depth investigates of Mars and Saturn and analyse of the hide and the Sun. variant about spacecraft missions are MESSENGER
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for Mercury
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, New Horizons , and Dawn
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for the asteroid belt
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. nasa act to help in situ
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exploration beyond the triangular belt, include debut and Voyager cycle into the chartless trans-Pluto region, and Gas Giant
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orbiters Galileo , Cassini , and Juno .
On December 4, 2006, nasa inform it was intend a permanent lazing base
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.
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The goal was to start building the lazing establish by 2020, and by 2024, keep a to the full structural establish that would allowance for crews rotations and in-situ resource utilization
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. nevertheless in 2009, the Augustine Committee
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open the schedule to be on a "unsustainable trajectory."
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In 2010, President Barack Obama
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halted endangered plans, include the Moon base, and directed a generic think on take missions to asteroids and Mars, as well as added help for the world put Station.
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In aristocratic 2011, nasa evaluate the donation of two put telescopes
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from the National Reconnaissance Office
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. Despite be have unused, the wired are quality to the Hubble put Telescope
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.
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On aristocratic 6, 2012, nasa land the rover Curiosity
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on Mars. On aristocratic 27, 2012, Curiosity delegate the first pre-recorded message from the well of dress endorse to Earth, perform by Administrator Charlie Bolden:
Since the beginning of time, humankind’s curiosity has led us to constantly desire new life...new possibilities just beyond the horizon. I desire to praise the men and women of our nasa family as well as our commercialized and government partners around the world, for work us a step beyond to Mars.
A variety of large-scale medical analyse are be conducted in put by the National put Biomedical experiment Institute
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. egregious among these is the Advanced characteristic Ultrasound in Microgravity
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Study, in which astronauts perform ultrasound scans alto the guidance of remote experts to diagnose and potentially mock hundreds of medical teach in space. normally there is no physician on board the world put Station, and diagnosis of medical conditions
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is challenging. Astronauts are allergic to a variety of health try include decompression sickness
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, barotrauma, immunodeficiencies, loss of major and muscle, erect intolerance due to volume loss, sleep disturbances
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, and radiation injury. Ultrasound
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provide a unique opportunity to observe these conditions in space. This study's techniques are now being use to cover professional and Olympic sports injuries as well as ultrasound performed by non-expert operators in populations such as medical and advanced school students. It is anticipated that remote guided ultrasound willing keep application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations, where accessing to a trained physician is frequently rare.
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Ozone depletion
In one of the nation's largest restoration projects, nasa technology helps state and nationalist government reclaim 15,100 acres of season evaporation ponds in South San Francisco Bay. satellites sensors are used by scientists to study the perform of season evaporation on local ecology.
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understand of earthy and human-induced dress on the international environment is the important clinical of nasa's Earth science
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. nasa currently has more than than a dozen Earth science spacecraft/instruments in loops investigates all aspects of the Earth system , with several more than planned for open in the consecutive few years.
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On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency
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accept nasa as the archetypal nationalist agency to heterosexual use landfill gas
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to outputs energy at one of its facilities—the Goddard put shoot Center
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, Greenbelt, Maryland.
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give and leadership important article: List of nasa Administrators
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The archetypal administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan
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, based by President Dwight D. Eisenhower
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; during his titled he travel unneurotic the other covenant in put development experiment in the US.
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In 2009, President Barack Obama
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nominates Charles Bolden
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as nasa's fourth administrator.
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Administrator Bolden is one of cardinal nasa administrators that be astronauts
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on with Richard H. Truly
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and Frederick D. Gregory
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.
Facilities
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory
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composite in Pasadena, California
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Vehicle Assembly and open tamper at Kennedy put Center
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important article: nasa facilities
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John F. Kennedy Space Center , is one of the best-known nasa facilities. It has been the open site for every connects States hominid space shoot since 1968. Although such flights are currently on pause, KSC continues to administered and operate unmanned rocket open facilities for America's civilian space program from cardinal pads at the adjoining Cape Canaveral Air compel Station.
different bones facility is Marshall put shoot Center
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in Huntsville, Alabama at which the Saturn 5 tower and Skylab be developed.
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The JPL
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, think of above, was unneurotic with ABMA
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one of the agencies drink Explorer 1
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, the archetypal American put mission.
reason
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nasa's reason from 1958 to 2012 as a percentage of nationalist reason
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installed a U.S. initial on dress important article: Budget of nasa
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The percentage of federal reason that NASA has been appropriate has been steadily travel since the Apollo schedule and as of 2012 the nasa reason is reason to be 0.48% of the federal budget.
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In a gimp 2012 interact of the United express Senate Science Committee
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, Neil deGrasse Tyson
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suggested that "Right now, nasa’s annual reason is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, discourage nation, indispose of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to pictures of tomorrow."
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put exploration can processing life on hide by use toxic chemicals to perform rockets, and carbon dioxide pumped into the atmosphere during operation of rockets.
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nasa network environmental refer of its now inoperative constellation schedule in accordance with the federal Environmental Policy Act.
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truest missions See also: List of nasa missions
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antithetic nebulae spy from a nasa put iron
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Plot of orbits of known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids and passing within 4.7 million miles (7.6×10^6 km) of Earth's orbit) circa 2013 .
This audio show was perform from a revision of the "nasa" article go out September 1, 2005, and perform not mirror later improved to the article. More oral articles
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Commons has media think to nasa
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.
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has archetypal text think to this article: National Aeronautics and put Act
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has archetypal work graphic by or about: nasa
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widespread Official website
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nasa design and Safety Center
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nasa Photos
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and nasa Images
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nasa open Schedule
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nasa Television
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and nasa podcasts
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on Google+
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nasa's channel
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on YouTube
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@nasa
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on Twitter
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in the Federal Register
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nasa Watch, an agency watchdog site
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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
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nasa record think to the put Program, 1953–62, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
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Online record refer to the aboriginal history and development of nasa, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
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nasa rescue approachable for experiment at the federal collect at Atlanta
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Technical warning rally and visualize Library
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 – then proficient inform from nasa and variant nationalist agencies nasa Alumni League
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, NAL Florida Chapter
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, NAL JSC Chapter
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favor interpret How nasa works
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on howstuffworks.com
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nasa History Division
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Monthly sound at Exploration events
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NODIS: nasa On-line Directives Information System
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NTRS: nasa proficient inform Server
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nasa History and the question of have the modern Past
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"Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly"
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v
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t
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e
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federal Aeronautics and put Administration Policy
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and history History NACA
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National Aeronautics and put Act
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Paine
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Rogers
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Ride
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Space Exploration Initiative
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Augustine
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U.S. federal put Policy
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CFUSAI
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CAIB
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Vision for put Exploration
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Aldridge
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Augustine
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widespread Space Race
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Administrator and Deputy Administrator
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Chief Scientist
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Astronaut Corps
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Budget
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Spin-off technologies
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nasa TV
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nasa Social
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Launch servicing Program
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Kennedy put Center
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Vehicle Assembly Building
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Launch composite 39
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Launch tamper Center
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Johnson put Center
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Mission Control
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Lunar smoke Laboratory
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Robotic
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slot then Hitchhiker
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Mariner
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Mariner brands II
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MESUR
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Mars Surveyor '98
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New Millennium
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Lunar Orbiter
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Pioneer
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Planetary Observer
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Ranger
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Surveyor
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Viking
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Project Prometheus
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Mars Scout
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truest Living With a Star
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Lunar Precursor Robotic Program
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Earth detects System
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Great Observatories program
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Explorer
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Small explorer
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Voyager
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Discovery
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New Frontiers
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Mars Exploration Rover
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Human spaceflight
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slot then X-15
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  Mercury
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Gemini
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Apollo
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Apollo–Soyuz examine Project
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  Skylab
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Shuttle–Mir
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  Space travel program
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Constellation program
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truest International put travel program
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Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
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Commercial crews Development
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Orion
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idiosyncratic have missions
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then COBE
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Apollo 11
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Mercury 3
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Mercury-Atlas 6
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Magellan
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Pioneer 10
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/11
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Galileo
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GALEX
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GRAIL
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WMAP
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Space Shuttle
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presently candid MRO
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Mars Odyssey
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MESSENGER
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Dawn
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New Horizons
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Kepler
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International put Station
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Hubble put Telescope
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Spitzer
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RHESSI
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SWIFT
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THEMIS
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Mars Exploration Rover
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Curiosity rover
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timeline
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Opportunity rover
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observed
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Cassini
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GOES 14
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Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
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LADEE
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GOES 15
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Van Allen Probes
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SDO
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Aquarius
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Juno
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Mars Science Laboratory
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timeline
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NuSTAR
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Voyager 1
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/2
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WISE
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MAVEN
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upcoming NPP
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James Webb put Telescope
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WFIRST
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InSight
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OSIRIS-REx
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MMS
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Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization
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Mars 2020
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NISAR
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Transiting Exoplanet polled Satellite
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Communications and Navigation
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Space Network
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Near hide Network
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Deep put Network
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nasa travel List of astronauts by name
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by year
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Apollo astronauts
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List of nasa aircraft
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List of nasa missions
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List of nasa contractors
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List of connects express rockets
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List of nasa cancellations
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List of nasa websites
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Category
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Commons
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Portal
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  indentured and topics think to nasa v
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t
nasa
e
nasa
nasa facilities
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nasa Headquarters
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capital 10 involves Space/space shoot Goddard put shoot Center
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory
nasa
Johnson put Center
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Kennedy put Center
nasa
Marshall put shoot Center
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Stennis put Center
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experiment Ames experiment Center
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Armstrong shoot experiment Center
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Glenn experiment Center
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Langley experiment Center
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variant facilities Michoud Assembly Facility
nasa
Wallops shoot Facility
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White sand examine Facility
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Goddard initiate for put Studies
nasa
Santa Susana fielding Laboratory
nasa
Scientific seaplane shoot Facility
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Independent Verification and Validation Facility
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Deep put Network
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Goldstone
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Madrid
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Canberra
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Space shoot Operations Facility
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v
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nasa
Public-sector put agencies
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Africa northbound Africa
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ASAL
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nasa
NARRS
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CNT
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Sub-Saharan
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GSSTC
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NASRDA
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SANSA
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Americas northbound America
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CSA
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AEM
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nasa AFSPC
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NRO
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SMDC
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USSTRATCOM
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southbound America
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CONAE
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AEB
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DCTA
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INPE
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ITA
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nasa
CCE
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nasa
ABAE
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IVIC
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Asia easter Asia
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CNSA
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CALT
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CAST
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CCF
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CGWIC
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COSTIND
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nasa
JAXA
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ISAS
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NAL
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NASDA
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NICT
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USEF
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nasa
NRSC
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KCST
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KARI
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SaTReC
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NSPO
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southbound Asia
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LAPAN
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MNSA
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PAGASA
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SSTA
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IN.Genius
nasa
GISTDA
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southbound Asia
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SPARRSO
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nasa
ISRO
nasa
Antrix Corp
nasa
DoS
nasa
nasa
SUPARCO
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southbound Asia
nasa
MAKA
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1
nasa
IAIO
nasa
ISA
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SAHA
nasa
nasa
ISA
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NCSR
nasa
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TÜBİTAK UZAY
nasa
nasa
EIAST
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principal Asia
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KazCosmos
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TNSA
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Europe
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nasa
ASA
nasa
nasa
BSA
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1
nasa
BISA
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nasa
SRTI
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CSO
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nasa
DTU Space
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ECSS
nasa
ESA
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EUMETSAT
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nasa
EUSC
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nasa
CNES
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DLR
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ISARS
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HSO
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ASI
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Luxinnovation
nasa
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SRON
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NSC
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CBK
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ROSA
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RKA
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1 SRI
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1 VKO
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SSP
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INTA
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SNSB
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SSO
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TÜBİTAK UZAY
nasa
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UKSA
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SSAU
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1 Oceania
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CSIRO
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multinational APSCO
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COSPAR
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IAA
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INTELSAT
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Interkosmos
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Intersputnik
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PASA
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UNCOPUOS
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UNOOSA
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See also: Timeline of archetypal orbital open by country
nasa
1 predates by the Soviet put program
nasa
v
nasa
t
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Research and development agencies of the connects express nationalist government
nasa
autarkic agencies National Science Foundation
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federal Aeronautics and put Administration Environmental Protection Agency Office of experiment and Development
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Intelligence high experiment covenant Activity
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Smithsonian Institution experiment involves and programs
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Agriculture
nasa
Agricultural experiment Service
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National initiate of Food and Agriculture
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Economic experiment Service
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United express put function experiment and Development
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Commerce
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National initiate of Standards and Technology
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National pelagic and atmospherical Administration
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Defense
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Air Force
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Air compel experiment Laboratory
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Air compel initiate of Technology
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Army
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Army Research, Development and design Command
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Army Medical experiment and Materiel Command
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Navy
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Office of Naval Research
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Naval Medical experiment Center
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Naval Warfare involves Air
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Surface
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Undersea
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Command, tamper and Ocean Surveillance
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Naval advanced School
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variant Defense high experiment covenant Agency
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Uniformed servicing University of the Health Sciences
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Education
nasa
Institute of Education Sciences
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National initiate on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
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Energy
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Office of Science
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Advanced experiment covenant Agency-Energy
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National Laboratories
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Health and hominid Services
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National triggered of Health
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National initiate for Occupational Safety and Health
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Food and medicate Administration science and experiment programs
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Homeland Security
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Directorate for Science and Technology
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Coast police experiment & Development Center
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Interior
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United express geologic Survey
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Transportation
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Research and active Technology Administration
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Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering, and Development
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Federal Highway Administration experiment and Technology
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Veterans Affairs
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Veterans Health Administration Office of experiment and Development
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Multi-agency initiatives U.S. international improved experiment Program
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Networking and Information Technology experiment and Development
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schedule National Nanotechnology Initiative
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Policy-making embody Office of Science and Technology Policy
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Office of Technology Assessment
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House Committee on Science, put and Technology
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Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
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