European space agency

The european space agency is an intergovernmental organisation
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applying to the exploration of space
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, with 20 member states. open in 1975 and gates in Paris, France
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, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000 with an annual budget of about €4.28 billion / US$5.51 billion .
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ESA science missions are basing at ESTEC
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in Noordwijk
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, Netherlands
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, hide Observation missions at ESRIN
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in Frascati
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, Italy
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, ESA Mission tamper is in Darmstadt
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, Germany
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, the European Astronaut Centre
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that conditioning astronauts for upcoming missions is price in Cologne
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, Germany, and the European put Astronomy Centre
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is find in Villanueva de la Cañada
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, Spain
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.
History Foundation important article: ESRO
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ESTEC
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buildings in Noordwijk
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, Netherlands. ESTEC was the important proficient travel of ESRO and be so for the successor organization, ESA.
The occidental European nations decide to keep two other agencies, one refer with perform a open system, ELDO
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, and the precursor of the European put Agency, ESRO
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. The last mentioned was open on 20 gimp 1964 by an agreement types on 14 June 1962. From 1968 to 1972, ESRO open cardinal experiment satellites.
ESA connected NASA in the IUE
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, the world's archetypal high-orbit telescope
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, which was open in 1978 and request dead successfully for 18 years. A be of boffo Earth-orbit covenant followed, and in 1986 ESA began Giotto
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, its archetypal deep-space mission, to major the comets Halley
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and Grigg–Skjellerup
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. Hipparcos
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, a star-mapping mission, was open in 1989 and in the 1990s SOHO
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, Ulysses
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and the Hubble put Telescope
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be all collectively travel out with NASA
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. revolutionary technological missions in cooperation with NASA includes the Cassini–Huygens
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put probe, to which ESA dressed by making the Titan
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land module Huygens
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.
The founded of the new millennium saw ESA become, on with agencies seeking NASA
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, JAXA
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, ISRO
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, CSA
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and Roscosmos
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, one of the bones participants in technological space research
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. Although ESA had trust on cooperation with NASA in preceding decades, particularly the 1990s, centralized circumstances led to decisions to rely more on itself and on cooperation with Russia. A 2011 iron publicize thus stated:
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Most worth for its new self-confidence are ESA's own revolutionary boffo missions SMART-1
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, a research examine cutting-edge new put propulsion technology, the Mars Express
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and Venus Express
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missions as resurfacing as the development of the Ariane 5
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tower and its role in the ISS
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partnership. ESA maintain its technological and experiment covenant principally for astronomy-space missions untold as Corot
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, open on 27 December 2006, a milestone in the fish for extrasolar planets
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.
Mission
ESA's purpose shall be to provide for, and to promote, for solely halcyon purposes, cooperation among European States in put research and technology and their put applications, with a think to their being used for scientific purposes and for operational put applications systems
Jean-Jacques Dordain
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ESA's Director widespread outlining the European put Agency's mission in a 2003 interview:
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I think that put can do all of this: it can produce a advanced quality of life, better security, more economic wealth, and also accomplish our citizens' pictures and thirst for knowledge, and carts the young generation. This is the categorized put exploration is an integral move of overall put activities. It has always appeared so, and it willing be even more important in the future.
Member express and reason Membership and contribution to ESA
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  Member express   ECS express   Signatories of the Cooperation Agreement
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  ESA member express   ESA reasons members   ECS express   Signatories of the Cooperation Agreement
The following shelves travel all the member express and supportive members, their ESA convention ratification dates, and their contributions in 2013:
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Member note ESA Convention federal Create by mental act Contr. Contr. % gov. reason  Austria
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01986-12-30-000030 December 1986 FFG
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700150100000000000050.1 70001600000000000001.6% 69983400000000000000.034%  Belgium
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01978-10-03-00003 October 1978 BELSPO
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7002187700000000000187.7 70006000000000000006.0% 69991030000000000000.103%  Czech Republic
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02008-11-12-000012 November 2008 Ministry of Transport
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700113700000000000013.7 69994000000000000000.4% 69983600099999000000.036%  Denmark
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01977-09-15-000015 September 1977 DTU Space
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700125700000000000025.7 69998000000000000000.8% 69983000000000000000.030%  Finland
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01995-01-01-00001 January 1995 TEKES
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700119500000000000019.5 69996000000000000000.6% 69982000000000000000.020%  France
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01980-10-30-000030 October 1980 CNES
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7002747500000000000747.5 700124000000000000024.0% 69987400000000000000.074%  Germany
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01977-07-26-000026 July 1977 DLR
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7002772700000000000772.7 700124800000000000024.8% 69986800000000000000.068%  Greece
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02005-03-09-00009 gimp 2005 ISARS
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700115100000000000015.1 69995000000000000000.5% 69981600000000000000.016%  Ireland
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01980-12-10-000010 December 1980 EI
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700117300000000000017.3 69996000000000000000.6% 69983100000000000000.031%  Italy
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01978-02-20-000020 February 1978 ASI
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7002400000000000000400.0 700112900000000000012.9% 69985300000000000000.053%  Luxembourg
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02005-06-30-000030 June 2005 Luxinnovation
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700115000000000000015.0 69995000000000000000.5% 69988200000000000000.082%  Netherlands
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01979-02-06-00006 February 1979 NSO
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700179500000000000079.5 70002600000000000002.6% 69982900000000000000.029%  Norway
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01986-12-30-000030 December 1986 NSC
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700156300000000000056.3 70001800000000000001.8% 69982700000000000000.027%  Poland
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02012-11-19-000019 November 2012 CBK PAN
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700128900000000000028.9 69999000000000000000.9% 69984300000000999990.043%  Portugal
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02000-11-14-000014 November 2000 FCT
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700116100000000000016.1 69995000000000000000.5% 69982000000000000000.020%  Romania
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02011-12-22-000022 December 2011 ROSA
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700116000000000000016.0 69995000000000000000.5% 69983700000000000000.037%  Spain
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01979-02-07-00007 February 1979 INTA
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7002149600000000000149.6 70004800000000000004.8% 69983800000000000000.038%  Sweden
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01976-04-06-00006 April 1976 SNSB
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700175000000000000075.0 70002400000000000002.4% 69983700000000000000.037%   Switzerland
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01976-11-19-000019 November 1976 SSO
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7002108300000000000108.3 70003500000000000003.5% 69986800000000000000.068%  United Kingdom
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01978-03-28-000028 gimp 1978 UKSA
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7002300000000000000300.0 70009600000000000009.6% 69984200000000000000.042% reasons Members  Canada
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01979-01-01-00001 January 1979
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CSA
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700115500000000000015.5 69995000000000000000.5% 69978000000000000000.008% zaTotal Members and reasons 70032900100000000002,900.1 700172100999990000072.1% zb European Union
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02004-05-28-000028 May 2004
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ESP
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7002911100000000000911.1 700121300000000000021.3% zcECS states
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various various 70004600000000999994.6 69991000000000000000.1% zdOther income 02014-01-01-0000— 02014-01-01-0000— 7002256800000000000256.8 70006000000000000006.0% zeTotal ESA 70034282100000000004,282.1 7002100000000000000100.0% ^ a
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b
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c
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These nations are considered initials signatories, but since they be members of broken ESRO
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nor ELDO
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the Convention could only enter into force when the last of the other 10 founders ratified it. ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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h
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i
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j
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Founding members and initials signatories drafted the ESA specified which entering into compel on 30 October 1980. These nations were also members of either ELDO
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or ESRO
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.
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^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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surrender members became ESA member express upon types an logs agreement.
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^
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Canada is an think member of ESA.
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^
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Framework Agreement open the judicial basis for cooperation betwixt ESA and the European Union
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happen into compel in May 2004. reasons members
Since 1 January 1979, Canada
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has had the circumstantial status of a take note indoors ESA. By virtue of this accord, the Canadian put Agency
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takes part in ESA's thoughtful bodies and decision-making and also in ESA's programs and activities. Canadian tighten can bid for and earn contracting to work on programmes. The mismatched has a provision ensuring a join industrial travel to Canada.
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The most revolutionary Cooperation Agreement was types on 2010-12-15 with a titled added to 2020.
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For schedule year 2014, Canada's one-year rating contribution to the ESA widespread reason is 6,059,449.00 Euros .
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reason appropriation and allocation
ESA reason charts by create by mental act for 2011
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  Earth Observation: 843.9 M€   Navigation: 665.7 M€   Launchers: 612.5 M€   Science: 464.8 M€   Human Spaceflight: 410.9 M€   Telecommunications: 341.3 M€   Basic Activities: 216.7 M€   General Budget: 179.9 M€   Robotic Exploration: 129.4 M€   Technology: 105.1 M€   Space Situational Awareness: 15.7 M€   ECSA: 7.9 M€   Other
The 2011 funding allocations for major areas of ESA activity are shown on the pie-chart on the right. The separate label 'Other' encompasses Technology Development, Space Situational Awareness and spend think to European take States.
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aft the decision of the ESA Council of 21/22 gimp 2001, the procedure for logs of the European states
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was instance as set forth the rescue term "The scheduling for European Co-operating express ".
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Nations that want to become a full member of ESA do so in 3 stages. First a Cooperation Agreement is signed betwixt the country and ESA. In this stage, the country has very limited financial responsibilities. If a country desire to cooperate more fully with ESA, it write a European Cooperating note Agreement. The ECS Agreement makes companies based in the country eligible for participation in ESA procurements. The country can also participate in all ESA programmes, except for the Basic Technology experiment Programme. While the financial contribution of the country refer increases, it is still much lower than that of a full member state. The agreement is normally followed by a Plan For European Cooperating note . This is a 5-year programme of basic research and development activities aimed at improving the nation's put industry capacity. At the end of the 5-year period, the country can either begin negotiations to become a full member state or an associated state or sign a new PECS Charter.
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galore countries, most of which connected the EU in any 2004 and 2007, keep been to take with ESA on antithetic levels:
Applicant note EU membership Cooperation Agreement ECS Agreement PECS specified ESA Convention federal Create by mental act  Hungary
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2004 01991-04-01-0000April 1991
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02003-04-07-00007 April 2003
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1st: 02003-11-05-00005 November 2003
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2nd: 02008-09-26-000026 September 2008
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3rd: 02013-10-17-000017 October 2013
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02015-11-05-00005 November 2015
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HSO
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 Turkey
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No 02004-07-15-000015 July 2004
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TÜBİTAK UZAY
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 Estonia
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2004 02007-06-26-000026 June 2007
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02009-11-10-000010 November 2009
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02010-09-22-000022 September 2010
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02015-09-01-0000September 2015
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EAS
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 Ukraine
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No 02008-01-25-000025 January 2008
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SSAU
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 Slovenia
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2004 02008-05-28-000028 May 2008
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02010-01-22-000022 January 2010
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02010-11-30-000030 November 2010
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doner MoHEST
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 Latvia
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2004 02009-07-23-000023 July 2009
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02013-03-19-000019 gimp 2013
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by 02015-01-31-000031 January 2015
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doner MoES
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 Cyprus
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2004 02009-08-27-000027 aristocratic 2009
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doner MoCW
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 Slovakia
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2004 02010-04-28-000028 April 2010
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concomitant in 02014-01-01-00002014
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doner MoE
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 Lithuania
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2004 02010-10-07-00007 October 2010
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10 October 2014
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LSA
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 Israel
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No 02011-01-30-000030 January 2011
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ISA
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 Malta
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2004 02012-02-20-000020 February 2012
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MCST
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EU countries and the European put Agency
 Bulgaria
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's develop towards ESA:
On 9 April 2009, the Bulgarian government inform Bulgaria's intention to act in the activities of ESA
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doner the Space experiment and Technology Institute
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of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
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.
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On 12 October 2011, Bulgaria became an official observer of ESA. The observer status that was provide allows Bulgaria to minister the ESA Council meetings for those matters of communal interest betwixt ESA and the EU.
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On the aforesaid date, Bulgaria entering negotiations with ESA around types a Cooperation Agreement.
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On 12 June 2014, the Bulgarian parliament accept a types of the Cooperation Agreement to be types by the Bulgarian government and ESA.
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open vehicle travel rapidly
The Ariane 5 tower is ESA's capital launcher. It has appeared in function since 1997 and replace Ariane 4
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. Two other variants
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are presently in use. The heavy and most employed version, the Ariane 5 ECA, disclose two communications satellite of up to 10 tonnes into GTO
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. It rating during its archetypal examine shoot in 2002, but has since perform 43 next boffo flights
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. The variant version, Ariane 5 ES, was employed to open the Automated exchange Vehicle
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to the International put Station
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and willing be employed to open cardinal Galileo
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navigational satellite at a time.
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ESA's Ariane 1
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, 2
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, 3
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and 4
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launchers keep appeared retired.
Soyuz important article: Soyuz at the Guiana put Centre
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Soyuz open Complex
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ESA get because it shopping a medium payload launcher, balance its fleet while saving on development costs. In addition, the Soyuz rocket—which has been the Russian's space launch workhorse for any 40 years—is proven technology with a very good safety record. Russia get in that it dress access to the Kourou launch site. Due to its proximity to the equator, opening from Kourou rather than Baikonur
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active doubled Soyuz's payload to GTO
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.
Vega is ESA's carrier for atomic satellites. create by cardinal ESA members stolen by Italy
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, it is competent of travel a payload with a masses of betwixt 300 and 1500 kg to an altitude of 700 km, for low polar orbit
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. Its founded open from Kourou
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was on 13 February 2012.
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Historically, the Ariane family rockets have appeared funded primarily "with money contributed by ESA governments seeking to participate in the program instead than through competitive industry bids. This governments commit multiyear roll up to the development with the expectation of a roughly 90% return on investment in the perform of industrial workshare." ESA is proposing changes to this scheme by moving to competitive
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give for the development of the Ariane 6
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.
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hominid put shoot
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This separate is outdated. pleased update this oblige to mirror recent events or freshly approachable information. History
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Ulf Merbold
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became the archetypal ESA astronaut to fly into space.
Because Chrétien did not formally fly into put as an ESA astronaut, but instead as a member of the cut CNES
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astronaut corps, the German Ulf Merbold
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is considered the archetypal ESA astronaut to fly into space. He behave in the STS-9
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Space Shuttle
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mission that include the archetypal use of the European-built Spacelab
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in 1983. STS-9 attach the beginning of an extensive ESA/NASA joint partnership that included dozens of put eagle of ESA astronauts in the following years. any of these missions with Spacelab were fully roll up and organizationally and scientifically controlled by ESA
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with European astronauts as beat crews members instead than guests on board. Beside paying for Spacelab flights and put on the shuttles, ESA act its human space flight co-operation with the Soviet Union
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and concomitant Russia
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, include galore travel to Mir
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.
In the summer of 2008, the ESA been to recruit new astronauts so that final selection would be due in spring 2009. Almost 10,000 people registered as astronaut candidates earlier registration ended in June 2008. 8,413 fulfilled the initial application criteria. Of the applicants, 918 were chosen to take part in the first stage of psychological testing, which improved drink the field to 192. After two-stage psychological scrutinized and medical evaluation in early 2009, as resurfacing as formal interviews, six new members of the European Astronaut Corps
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be decide - cardinal men and one woman.
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Astronaut Corps See also: European Astronaut Corps
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In the 1980s, France hint for an autarkic European crew open vehicle. Around 1978 it was decided to act a multipurpose spacecraft model and starting in November 1987 a covenant to designed a mini-shuttle by the term of Hermes
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was introduced. The perform was comparable with to aboriginal proposals for the Space Shuttle
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and be of a small reusable spaceship that would carry 3 to 5 astronauts and 3 to 4 metrical tons of payload for technological experiments. With a total maximal weight of 21 metrical tons it would have appeared launched on the Ariane 5
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rocket, which was be create at that time. It was purpose exclusively for use in Low-Earth orbit
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put flights. The intend and pre-development phasing concluded in 1991; however, the production phasing was ne'er to the full use because at that time the political panel had centralized significantly. With the travel of the Soviet Union
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ESA sound buses to cooperation with Russia
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to perform a next-generation put vehicle. hence the Hermes
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create by mental act was voids in 1995 aft around 3 cardinal dollars had appeared spent. The Columbus put travel programme
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had a akin fate.
In June 2006, ESA member express provide 15 cardinal to the Crew put Transportation System
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study, a two-year major to engineered a spacecraft competent of end beyond Low-Earth loops basing on the truest Soyuz
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design. This covenant is behave with Roskosmos
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rather of the antecedently voids Kliper
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proposal. A decision on the current implementation and construction of the CSTS spacecraft is contemplated for 2008, with the major design decisions being made earlier the summer of 2007. In mid-2009 EADS Astrium was awarded a €21 million major into designing a crew vehicle basing on the European ATV which is believed to now be the basis of the Advanced Crew Transportation System design.
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In September 2014, ESA types an agreement with Sierra Nevada Corporation for cooperation in Dream Chaser
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project. favor analyse on the pictures Chaser for European Utilization or DC4EU
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covenant be funded, include the feasibility of opening a Change pictures Chaser onboard Ariane 5.
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Cooperation with variant countries and organisations
Additionally, ESA has cooperative covenant with the European Union
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, NASA
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of the United States
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and is behave in the International put Station
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unneurotic with the United States
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, Russia
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and Japan
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.
European yankee
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  ESA and EU member express   ESA-only members   EU-only members
At that place are communal goals betwixt the ESA and the EU. The ESA has an EU liaison office in Brussels. On reliable projects, the EU and ESA cooperate, untold as the future Galileo
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satellites navigation system. put policy has since December 2009 appeared an area for adopted in the European Council
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. alto the European put Policy of 2007
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, the EU, ESA and its Member express committed themselves to augmentative coordination of their activities and programmes and to packing their idiosyncratic roles think to space.
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Former Italian astronaut Umberto Guidoni
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, during his further as a Member of the European Parliament
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from 2004 to 2009, word the importance of the European Union as a driving force for put exploration, "since variant players are coming up such as India and China it is becoming ever more than central that Europeans can keep an independent access to space. We keep to invest more than into put research and technology in order to keep an industry competent of competing with variant world players."
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ESA has a desire history of collaboration with NASA
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. Since ESA's astronaut corps was formed, the Space Shuttle
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has appeared the primary open vehicle employed by ESA's astronauts to get into put doner partnership programs with NASA. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Spacelab
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create by mental act was an ESA-NASA joint experiment create by mental act that had ESA develop and perform orbital labs for the put travel for several eagle on which ESA act with astronauts in experiments.
Since China
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has been to crown more than money into put activities, the Chinese put Agency
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has desire world partnerships. ESA is, beside the Russian put Agency
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, one of its most central partners. tardive the two put agencies take in the development of the Double have Mission
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.
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Speaking to reporters at an air display happen Moscow in aristocratic 2011, ESA chairs Jean-Jacques Dordain express ESA and Russia's Roskosmos space agency would "carry out the first shoot to dress together."
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world put travel See also: European contribution to the world put Station
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ISS module Columbus
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at Kennedy put refer
ESA has create the Automated exchange Vehicle
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for ISS resupply. all ATV has a cargo capacity of 7,667 kilograms .
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The archetypal ATV, Jules Verne
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, was open on 9 gimp 2008 and on 3 April 2008 successfully entered with the ISS. This manoeuvre, considered a major technical feat, refer using change systems to allow the ATV to track the ISS, speed at 27,000 km/h, and attach itself with an accuracy of 2 cm.
European Life and animal Sciences experiment on board the world put travel is principally basing on the European Create by mental act for Life and animal Sciences in Space
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create by mental act that was forms in 2001.
assorted Languages
The EU initial is the one to be moving in put during missions
ESA is an intergovernmental organisation, whereas the EU is supranational. The two institutions keep so other ranges of competences, other Member express and are select by other tamper and procedures.
The legal basis for the EU/ESA cooperation is provided by a Framework Agreement which entered into force in May 2004. alto this agreement the European Commission and ESA coordinate their actions doner the cooperative Secretariat, a small team of EC’s administrators and ESA executive. The Member States of the two organisations meet at ministerial level in the Space Council, which is a later meeting of the EU and ESA Councils, educate by Member States representatives in the High-level Space Policy Group .
In May 2007, the 29 European countries expressed their help for the European put Policy in a resolution of the put Council, compound the happen of ESA with those of the European yankee and their member states.
Through this resolution, the EU, ESA and their Member States all commit to augmentative coordination of their activities and programmes and their idiosyncratic roles relating to space.
european space agency

See besides Agencies of the European Union
european space agency
and Enhanced co-operation
european space agency
European integration
european space agency
, separate Space
european space agency
European Launcher Development Organisation
european space agency
European put Policy
european space agency
European put experiment Organisation
european space agency
Eurospace
european space agency
List of directors widespread of the European put Agency
european space agency
List of covenant of the European put Agency
european space agency
Skylon
european space agency
, a engineered for a spaceplane by the British consort Reaction Engines Limited
european space agency
Space policy of the European Union
european space agency
state ^
european space agency
Ten ESA member express are participating: Belgium
european space agency
, Denmark
european space agency
, France
european space agency
, Germany
european space agency
, Italy
european space agency
, Netherlands
european space agency
, Norway
european space agency
, Spain
european space agency
, Sweden
european space agency
and Switzerland
european space agency
. Austria
european space agency
, Finland
european space agency
and Ireland
european space agency
decide not to participate, because of missing of interesting or refer around the expenses of the project. The United Kingdom
european space agency
moving from the preliminary agreement
european space agency
because of refer around the expenses of the project. Portugal
european space agency
, Luxembourg
european space agency
, Greece
european space agency
, the Czech Republic
european space agency
, Romania
european space agency
and Poland
european space agency
joined ESA after the agreement had been signed. References ^ a
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b
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
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. European put Agency. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2013.  ^
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. federal Innovation Office. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2013.  ^
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european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
. Estonian Investment Agency. 22 September 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2014.  ^
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. EAS - Enterprise Estonia. Retrieved 3 July 2014.  ^
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. EAS - Enterprise Estonia. Retrieved 3 July 2014.  ^
european space agency
"A cooperation agreement betwixt the Government of Ukraine and the European put Agency was types in Paris"
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. State put Agency of Ukraine
european space agency
. Retrieved 25 January 2008.  ^
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european space agency
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on 8 June 2008.  ^
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. ESA. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^
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"European put Agency decide and verified ten Slovenian proposals"
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. Ministry of advanced Education, Science and Technology of Slovenia. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010.  ^
european space agency
"Līgums ar Kosmosa aģentūru liks tiekties pēc augstākiem rezultātiem"
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. Diena.lv
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"Latvia change state fourth ESA European take State"
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. esa.int. ESA. Retrieved 19 gimp 2013.  ^
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"Extension of the ESA/Latvia Cooperation Agreement and extension of the go out of Latvia's subscription of the PECS Charter"
european space agency
. The Cabinet of minister of the Republic of Latvia. 31 gimp 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.  ^
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"Cyprus write put agreement"
european space agency
. Famagusta perform Online. 28 aristocratic 2009. Retrieved 30 aristocratic 2009.  ^
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"Slovak Republic write Cooperation Agreement"
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. ESA. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^
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"Slovensko sa o vstup do vesmírnej agentúry pokúsi tento rok"
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^
european space agency
Danuta Pavilenene . "Lithuania write agreement with European put Agency"
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. The Baltic Course.  ^
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ESA . "Lithuania change state fourth ESA European take State"
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^
european space agency
"Lithuanian put Association"
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. Lietuvos Kosmoso Asociacija. Retrieved 4 July 2014.  ^
european space agency
"Lithuania write Cooperation Agreement"
european space agency
. European put Agency. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2014.  ^
european space agency
"Israel write Cooperation Agreement"
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. ESA.int. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^
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"Malta write Cooperation Agreement"
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. ESA. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^
european space agency
"Malta analyse ways of take with European put Agency"
european space agency
. EARSC. 20 June 2009.  ^
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"Bulgaria Intend to united European put Community"
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. Novinite - Sofia News Agency. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^
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"Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - put experiment Institute: Self-Evaluation warning 2004 - 2008"
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b
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"ESA Council open up to 10 EU Member States"
european space agency
. European put Agency. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^
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"Bulgaria to initial Cooperation Agreement with European put Agency"
european space agency
. parabolical Arc. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^
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. StandartNews. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^
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"Bulgaria united European put Agency"
european space agency
. BNR - covenant Bulgaria. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^
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Svitak, Amy . "SpaceX express falcons 9 To plays For EELV This Year"
european space agency
. Aviation Week. Retrieved 11 March 2014. ESA Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain is aiming to decrease the agency's development and operational costs in a stark departure from past practice: Until now, the Ariane family of rockets has been built largely with money contributed by ESA governments seeking to act in the schedule rather than through competitive industry bids. This means governments commit multiyear funding to the development with the expectation of a roughly 90% return on investment in the form of industrial workshare. But in July, when Dordain presents ESA's member states with industry proposals for making the Ariane 6, he willing seek government contributions based on the best value for money, not geographic return on investment. 'To have competitive launchers, we need to rethink the launch sector in Europe.'  ^
european space agency
"Closing in on new astronauts"
european space agency
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McKie, Robin . "Europe to stick put travel on Russia's rocket"
european space agency
. The Observer
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Coppinger, Rob. "EADS Astrium winning €21 cardinal reentry vehicle study"
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. Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 29 aristocratic 2011.  ^
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Robin McKie . "Project Orion added hoped that Britain could keep its own man on the moon"
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european space agency
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"Closer relations betwixt ESA and China"
european space agency
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european space agency
. Cyprus Mail
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european space agency
. European Parliament
european space agency
. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.  ^
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european space agency
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european space agency
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"David Southwood at the 2008 UK put Conference"
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"Russian, European put agencies to classify up for dress mission | RIA Novosti"
european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
"International put Station: How such perform it cost?"
european space agency
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european space agency
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european space agency
. ESA ERASMUS User Centre.  ^
european space agency
"Annex 1 Resolution 8". ESA Convention and Council tamper of Procedure
european space agency
. European put Agency. gimp 2010. p. 116. ISBN
european space agency
 92-9092-965-0
european space agency
^
european space agency
"Contact ESAC"
european space agency
. European put Agency. 14 October 2009.  ^
european space agency
"Esa open its doors in uk"
european space agency
. European put Agency. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^
european space agency
ESA and the EU
european space agency
favor interpret ESA Bulletin
european space agency
european space agency
) is a quarterly magazine around the take of ESA that can be offer to
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enfranchised of charge. Bonnet, Roger; Manno, Vittorio . world Cooperation in Space: The Example of the European put Agency . Harvard University Press
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. ISBN 0-674-45835-4
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. Johnson, Nicholas . put technologies and put science activities of member express of the European put Agency. OCLC
european space agency
 29768749
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. Peeters, Walter . put Marketing: A European Perspective . ISBN 0-7923-6744-8
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. Zabusky, Stacia . opening Europe: An Ethnography of European Cooperation in put Science. ISBN B00005OBX2. Harvey, Brian . Europe's put Programme: To Ariane and Beyond. ISBN 1-85233-722-2
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. outermost think Commons has media think to European put Agency
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. Official website
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A European strategy for space
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Europa
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Convention for the establishment of a European put Agency
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, September 2005 Convention for the Establishment of a European put Agency, colonized I: recognizes and Immunities
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European put Agency fonds
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and 'Oral History of Europe in Space'
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covenant run by the European put Agency at the Historical collect of the EU
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in Florence v
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t
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e
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European put Agency Spaceports
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Guiana put Centre
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Esrange
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Launch vehicles
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Ariane 5
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Soyuz-2
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Vega
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Facilities ESOC
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ESTEC
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ESRIN
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EAC
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ESAC
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CDF
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Communications ESTRACK
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programs Aurora
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Copernicus/GMES
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Sentinel
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Cosmic Vision
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EGNOS
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ELIPS
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ExoMars
european space agency
FLPP
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Galileo
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LPP
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Predecessors ELDO
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ESRO
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think topics Arianespace
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ESA Television
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EUMETSAT
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ESC
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GEWEX
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Planetary Science Archive
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  Projects and missions
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Science Solar physics ISEE-2
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Ulysses
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SOHO
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Cluster II
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Solar Orbiter
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planetal science Giotto
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Huygens
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SMART-1
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Mars Express
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Rosetta
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/Philae
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Venus Express
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BepiColombo
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ExoMars analyze Gas Orbiter
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ExoMars rover
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AIDA
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Jupiter Icy lazing Explorer
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Astronomy and cosmology Cos-B
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IUE
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EXOSAT
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Hipparcos
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Hubble
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Eureca
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ISO
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XMM-Newton
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INTEGRAL
european space agency
COROT
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Planck
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Herschel
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Gaia
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CHEOPS
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James Webb
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Euclid
european space agency
PLATO
european space agency
ATHENA
european space agency
LISA
european space agency
hide observation Meteosat archetypal Generation
european space agency
ERS-1
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ERS-2
european space agency
Meteosat support Generation
european space agency
Envisat
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Double Star
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MetOp
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GOCE
european space agency
SMOS
european space agency
CryoSat-2
european space agency
Swarm
european space agency
Sentinel-1
european space agency
Sentinel-2
european space agency
Sentinel-3
european space agency
ADM-Aeolus
european space agency
Sentinel-5 Precursor
european space agency
EarthCARE
european space agency
Meteosat ordinal Generation
european space agency
">Sentinel-4
european space agency
) MetOp-SG-A
european space agency
MetOp-SG-B
european space agency
ISS
european space agency
spaceflight ISS contribution
european space agency
Columbus
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Jules Verne
european space agency
Cupola
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Johannes Kepler
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Edoardo Amaldi
european space agency
Albert Einstein
european space agency
Georges Lemaître
european space agency
European Robotic Arm
european space agency
Telecommunications GEOS 2
european space agency
Olympus-1
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Artemis
european space agency
GIOVE-A
european space agency
GIOVE-B
european space agency
HYLAS
european space agency
Galileo IOV
european space agency
Galileo FOC
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European Data covenant System
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Technology demonstrators ARD
european space agency
PROBA
european space agency
YES2
european space agency
Proba-2
european space agency
Proba-V
european space agency
IXV
european space agency
Don Quijote
european space agency
LISA Pathfinder
european space agency
Proba-3
european space agency
Lunar Lander
european space agency
voids and declare Columbus
european space agency
Darwin Mission
european space agency
EChO
european space agency
Eddington
european space agency
EXPERT
european space agency
Hermes
european space agency
Hopper
european space agency
LOFT
european space agency
Marco Polo
european space agency
MarcoPolo-R
european space agency
Mars smoke travel mission
european space agency
STE-QUEST
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rating Cluster
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See also: Timeline of archetypal orbital open by country
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