California

As of 2007
English 57.4%
california
Multilingual
california
32.8%
california
Spanish
california
28.5%
california
Chinese
california
2.8%
california
Tagalog
california
2.2%
california
Vietnamese
california
1.43%
california
Demonym
california
californian Capital
california
Sacramento
california
ample city Los Angeles
california
Largest metro
california
Greater Los Angeles Area
california
Area Ranked 3rd
california
 - Total 163,696 sq mi  - Width 250 miles   - Length 770 miles   - % watering 4.7  - Latitude 32° 32′ N to 42° N  - Longitude 114° 8′ W to 124° 26′ W Population Ranked 1st
california
 - Total 38,802,500
california
 - Density
california
246/sq mi  Ranked 11th
california
 - Median household income
california
US$61,021 Elevation
california
 - Highest aim Mount Whitney
california
california
california
california
california
14,505 ft  - Mean 2,900 ft   - Lowest aim Badwater Basin
california
in Death Valley
california
california
california
−282
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 ft earlier statehood california Republic
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Admission to Union
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September 9, 1850 Governor
california
Jerry Brown
california
" title="Democratic Party ">D
california
) Lieutenant Governor
california
Gavin Newsom
california
" title="Democratic Party ">D
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)
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Legislature
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california note Legislature
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 - Upper house
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california note Senate
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 - Lower house
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california note Assembly
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U.S. Senators
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Dianne Feinstein
california
Barbara Boxer
california
U.S. home delegation
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38 Democrats, 15 Republicans Time zones
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Pacific quantify Zone
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 - modular quantify PST
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 - winter quantify PDT
california
Abbreviations CA
california
, Calif., Cal.,
california
US-CA
california
Website www.ca.gov
california
california note symbols
california
california
The Flag of california
california
california
The Seal of california
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physical and put insignia Bird
california
california quail
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Fish
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Golden trout
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Flower
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california poppy
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Grass
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Purple needlegrass
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Insect
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california dogface butterfly
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Mammal
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california old bear
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california
Reptile
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Desert tortoise
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Tree
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california redwood
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Inanimate insignia Colors
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northern & metallic
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Dance
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West glide Swing
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Folk dance
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Square dance
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Fossil
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Sabre-toothed cat
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Gemstone
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Benitoite
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Mineral
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Native gold
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Motto
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Eureka
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california
Rock
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Serpentine
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Soil
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San Joaquin
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Song
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"I loving You, california
california
" Tartan
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california note Tartan
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Route marker
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california
State Quarter
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california
Let go of in 2005 Lists of connects express note symbols
california

What is now california was archetypal improved by various autochthonal American tribes
california
earlier be analyse by a be of European expeditions passim the 16th and 17th centuries. It was sometime claimed by the Spanish Empire
california
as move of Alta california
california
in the ample territory of New Spain
california
. Alta california became a move of Mexico
california
in 1821 following its boffo war for independence
california
, but would concomitant be provide to the connects express in 1848 aft the Mexican-American War
california
. The occidental spread of Alta California was shortly perform as the note of california, which was admitted as the 31st note on September 9, 1850. The california metallic Rush
california
be in 1848 led to melodramatic societal and demographic change, with large-scale immigration from the east and foreign with an attach to businesslike boom.
At least fractional of the fruits perform in the United express is now cultivating in california, and the note besides stolen in the production of vegetables.
california
variant central contributors to the state's economy includes aerospace, education, manufacturing, and high-tech industry. If it be a country, california would be the 8th or 9th ample economy in the world
california
california
and the 34th most populous
california
.
Etymology important article: Origin of the term california
california

The term california is most ordinarily permit to keep derives from a fictional paradise populate by Black
california
Amazons
california
and tamper by further Calafia
california
.
california
california
The story of Calafia is rescue in a 1510 take The try of Esplandián
california
, graphic as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula
california
by Spanish risk writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo
california
.
california
california
california
The kingdom of further Calafia, match to Montalvo, was express to be a outlying beach populous by griffins
california
and variant stranger beasts, and plush in gold.
decrease manufactured of the state's term includes CA, Cal., Cali., Calif.
california
and us-CA
california
.
Geography important article: Geography of california
california
california
A topographical map of california
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A put of redwood steer in Redwood federal Park
california
california
Mount Shasta
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Free-flying think of the california principal Valley
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A think of the Pacific glide in Big Sur
california
california
Yosemite federal Park
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rains on the Sierra Nevada
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in eastbound california
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Death Valley
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, in the setting regions of the Inland Empire
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Potato smouldering on Santa Cruz Island
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The coastline on Laguna Beach
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in confederate california
In the put of the note be the california principal Valley
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, finite by the coastal mountain ranges
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in the west, the Sierra Nevada
california
to the east, the Cascade Range
california
in the northbound and the Tehachapi Mountains
california
in the south. The principal Valley is california's agricultural heartland.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta serves as a critical water supply hub for the state. watering is routed through an extensive network of canals and pumps out of the delta, that course active the length of the state, including the Central Valley Project and the note watering Project. watering from the Delta give drinking water for active 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population, and give water to farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Channel Islands
california
are find off the Southern
california
coast
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.
To the easter of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley
california
and Mono Lake
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, an necessary migratory bird
california
habitat. In the occidental move of the note is Clear Lake
california
, the ample freshwater lake by area exclusively in California. Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the california/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada travel to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen atomic glaciers, include Palisade Glacier
california
, the southbound glacier in the connects States.
In the southbound is a ample indoor season lake, the Salton Sea
california
. The south-central setting is label the Mojave
california
; to the northbound of the Mojave be Death Valley
california
, which contains the worst and hottest travel in northbound America, the Badwater Basin
california
at −282 feet .
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The horizontal have from the nadir of Death Valley to the peak of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles . Indeed, almost all of southbound California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme advanced temperatures during the summer. The southbound hint of california with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River
california
, from which the confederate move of the note dress around fractional of its water.
As move of the Ring of Fire
california
, california is exposing to tsunamis
california
, floods
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, droughts, Santa Ana winds
california
, wildfires
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, landslides
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on engulfing terrain, and has any volcanoes
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. It perceive galore earthquakes
california
due to any fault gushing doner the state, in specific the San Andreas Fault
california
.
Climate important article: Climate of california
california

union parts of the note average higher one-year rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges manipulate the climate as well: any of the rainiest parts of the note are west-facing mountain slopes. northbound california has a temperate climate
california
, and the principal Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with ample temperature extremes than the coast. The advanced mountains, include the Sierra Nevada
california
, keep an alpine climate
california
with rains in invested and milder to medium change in summer.
California is one of the rich and most diverse parts of the world, and encompasses any of the most existing ecologic communities. california is move of the Nearctic ecozone
california
and enclosed a be of terrene ecoregions
california
.
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california pads any superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees
california
, the tallest trees
california
, and the oldest trees
california
. california's autochthonal shoot are perennial plants
california
.
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aft European contact, these be by and large replace by invasive species
california
of European one-year grasses; and, in contemporary times, california's moulding trend a diagnostic golden-brown in summer.
california

put life in the dry climate of the move Sonoran regulate contains a diversity of autochthonal cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree
california
is open in the Mojave Desert. discipline put includes the command setting poppy and a variety of asters
california
. Fremont cottonwood
california
and valley oak
california
branch in the principal Valley. The apical Sonoran regulate encompasses the chaparral belt, legendary by put of atomic shrubs, impede trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila
california
, mint
california
, Phacelia
california
, Viola
california
, and the california poppy – the state flower – besides branch in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which happen show than anyplace else in the world.
california

The advanced elevations of the Canadian regulate allowance the Jeffrey pine
california
, red fir
california
, and lodgepole pine
california
to thrive. Wooded areas are riotous with command manzanita
california
and ceanothus
california
; the unparalleled Sierra puffball
california
is besides open here. correctly beneath the timeberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet , get down the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a be of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose
california
, yellow columbine
california
, alpine buttercup
california
, and alpine harm star
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.
california
california

In the setting of the move Sonoran zone, the mammals includes the jackrabbit
california
, kangaroo rat
california
, squirrel, and opossum. communal monitoring includes the owl
california
, roadrunner
california
, cactus wren
california
, and antithetic species of hawk. The area's reptilian life includes the sidewinder viper
california
, desert tortoise
california
, and horned toad
california
. The apical Sonoran regulate pads mammals untold as the antelope
california
, brown-footed woodrat
california
, and ring-tailed cat
california
. monitoring unparalleled to this regulate are the california thrasher
california
, bushtit
california
, and california condor
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.
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california
california
california

The Canadian regulate mammals includes the mountain weasel
california
, snowshoe hare
california
, and any species of chipmunks. prominent monitoring includes the blue-fronted jay
california
, Sierra chickadee
california
. Sierra hermit thrush
california
, water ouzel
california
, and Townsend's solitaire
california
. As one travel into the Hudsonian zone, birds arose scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the single monitoring autochthonal to the advanced Arctic region, other monitoring species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker
california
. halfway mammals open in this region includes the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit
california
, and the bighorn sheep
california
. As of April 2003
california
, the bighorn sheep was travel as existing by the US fishing and Wildlife Service. The fauna open passim any zoned are the mule deer
california
, coyote, mountain lion
california
, northern flicker
california
, and any species of deal and sparrow.
california

As of April 2003, 118 california animals be on the nationalist existing list; 181 put be travel as existing or threatened. existing animals includes the San Joaquin kitfox
california
, Point Arena mountain beaver
california
, Pacific work mouse
california
, salt marsh garner mouse
california
, Morro Bay kangaroo rat
california
, Amargosa vole
california
, california least tern
california
, california condor
california
, loggerhead shrike
california
, San Clemente sapiential sparrow
california
, San Francisco locks snake
california
, cardinal species of salamander, cardinal species of chub, and two species of pupfish. eight butterfly are besides endangered
california
and two that are existing are on the nationalist list. Among existing animals are the coastal california gnatcatcher
california
, Paiute ruthless trout
california
, southern sea otter
california
, and northern detects owl
california
. california has a average of 290,821 acres of federal Wildlife Refuges.
california
As of September 2010
california
, 123 california animals be travel as either existing or existing on the nationalist inventory give by the US fishing & Wildlife Service
california
.
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Also, as of the aforesaid year
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, 178 species of california put be travel either as existing or existing on this nationalist list.
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Rivers important article: List of rivers of california
california

The two most egregious rivers indoors california are the Sacramento River
california
and the San Joaquin River
california
, which drained the Central Valley and the westbound slopes of the Sierra Nevada and move to the Pacific Ocean doner San Francisco Bay
california
. any bones tributaries range into the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, include the Pit River
california
, the Tuolumne River
california
, and the Feather River
california
.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, california was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian northbound America. Various calculate of the autochthonal population crops from 100,000 to 300,000, which was around one-third of all autochthonal Americans in what is now the connects States.
california
The Indigenous rooms of california
california
include more than than 70 antithetic groups
california
of Native Americans, ranging from large, improved populations extant on the glide to gangs in the interior. california gangs also were diverse in their governmental organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, untold as the Chumash
california
, Pomo
california
and Salinan
california
. Trade, intermarriage and martial alliances further galore societal and businesslike relationships among the antithetic groups.
Finally, aft the Portola expedition
california
of 1769-70, Spanish missionaries
california
began sending up 21 california Missions
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on or happen the glide of Alta california
california
, founded in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish martial pressure built any accommodate and cardinal atomic towns . Two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles
california
and San Jose
california
.
19th century
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The Russian Empire
california
open their ample settlement in california at Fort Ross
california
in 1812
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Map show Alta california
california
in 1838 when it was a sparsely been Mexican province.
california
california
Merchant setting flood San Francisco
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smouldering in 1850 or 1851
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Chinese metallic miners
california
in california
Cattle ranches, or ranchos
california
, be as the dominant institutions of Mexican california. aft Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and were secularized
california
by 1834.
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The ranchos create alto ownership by Californios
california
who had conventional beach grants, and trade flog and tallow with Boston merchants.
In betwixt 1831 to 1836, california undergo a series of revolt against Mexico;
california
this went in the 1836 california revolt
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stolen by Juan Bautista Alvarado
california
, which end aft Mexico based him governor of the department.
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The revolt, which had momently explicit california an autarkic state, was boffo with the assistance of American
california
and British
california
residents of california,
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include Isaac Graham
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;
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aft 1840, 100 of those residents who did not keep passports be arrested, directive to the Graham affair
california
in 1840.
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The california Republic was shorts lived; the aforesaid year attach the outbreak of the Mexican-American War
california
. When Commodore John D. Sloat
california
of the United express Navy
california
moving into Monterey Bay
california
and began the martial occupation of California by the United States, union california surrendered in fewer than a month to the U.S. forces. After a series of defensive battle in Southern california
california
, the Treaty of Cahuenga
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was types by the Californios
california
on January 13, 1847, shopping American tamper in california.
In 1846 the non-native population of california was reason to be no more than than 8,000, nonnegative around 100,000 autochthonal Americans drink from around 300,000 earlier Hispanic settlement in 1769.
california
aft metallic was discovered, the population grow with U.S. citizens, Europeans, taiwanese and variant immigrants during the ample california metallic Rush
california
. By 1854 finished 300,000 settlers had come.
california
betwixt 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco
california
hyperbolic from 500 to 150,000.
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On September 9, 1850, as move of the Compromise of 1850
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, california was admitted to the connects express connects as a free state
california
, maintain the expansion of slavery
california
to the Pacific Coast.
The put of government for california alto Spanish and concomitant Mexican overrides was find at Monterey
california
from 1777 until 1845.
california
Pio Pico
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, decide Mexican governor of Alta california, moving the primary to Los Angeles in 1845. The connects express consulate
california
was besides find in Monterey, alto consul Thomas O. Larkin
california
.
Initially, moving between california and the be of the transcontinental U.S. was time dining and dangerous. A more operating connection happen in 1869 with the completion of the First continental Railroad
california
doner Donner Pass
california
in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Once completed, hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens came west, where new californians be detects that land in the state, if water during the dry summer months, was highly resurfacing suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, variant cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit steer be grown , and the foundation was travel for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
20th century
california
california
Hollywood rescue studios, 1922
To accommodate the population's needs, bones design feats seeking the california
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and Los Angeles Aqueducts
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; the Oroville
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and Shasta Dams
california
; and the Bay
california
and Golden gates Bridges
california
be perform across the state. The note government besides adopting the california know scheduling for advanced Education
california
in 1960 to discipline a extremely businesslike system of in the public eye education.
The United express censuses Bureau
california
calculate that the population of california was 38,802,500 on July 1, 2014, a 4.16% added since the 2010 connects express Census
california
.
california
betwixt 2000 and 2009, at that place was a earthy added of 3,090,016 .
california
During this quantify period, international migration
california
perform a net added of 1,816,633 populate while house migration perform a net reduces of 1,509,708, prove in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.
california
The note of california's own statistics display a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.
california
However, match to the Manhattan initiate for Policy Research
california
, since 1990 active 3.4 cardinal californians keep moving to variant states, with most travel to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona.
california

be in the year 2010, for the archetypal quantify since the california metallic Rush
california
, california-born residents forms up the majority of the state's population.
california
In 2011, california saw a dress in its immigration pattern, with more than occurs from Asia
california
and fewer from Latin America
california
.
california
In average for 2011, at that place be 277,304 immigrants. 57% happen from asiatic countries vs. 22% from Latin American countries.
california

match to the U.S. censuses Bureau in 2011:
california

74.0% White
california
13.6% Asian
california
6.6% white or African American
california
1.7% Native American
california
3.6% Multiracial
california
0.5% Native Hawaiian
california
or Pacific Islander
california
38.1% are Hispanic or Latino
california
61.9% of the population is Non-Hispanic california biracial Breakdown of Population biracial composition 1970
california
1990
california
2000
california
2010
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White
california
89.0% 69.0% 59.5% 57.6% Asian
california
2.8% 9.6% 10.9% 13.1% Black
california
7.0% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2% Native
california
0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% Native Hawaiian
california
and other Pacific Islander
california
– – 0.3% 0.4% Other race
california
0.7% 13.2% 16.8% 17.0% Two or more than races
california
– – 4.8% 4.9%
With regard to demographics, California has the largest population of White Americans in the U.S., an reason 22,200,000 residents, although most demographic surveys do not decide actual heritable ancestry. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the U.S., an reason 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is reason at 4.4 million, about a third of the nation's 13 cardinal Asian Americans. california's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.
california
While the population of minorities be for 102 cardinal of 301 cardinal U.S. residents, 20% of the federal average bachelor in california.
california
california

The population petty than age 1 was 75% minority in 2011.
california
around 26% of california's public school
california
students in the 2011–12 school year distinguished themselves as white , and 52% of the state's students distinguished themselves as Hispanic or Latino. The following ethnic groups that made up the umbrella in the public eye school student body be Asians , African Americans , Native Americans , and Pacific Islanders . Students of mixed race made up 2% of the in the public eye schools. Hispanics made up the majority of the state's in the public eye educate since 2010. Los Angeles compound educate District
california
, the ample educate regulate in california and support ample in the nation, is 73% Hispanic, 10% African American, 9% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 6% Asian, 0.5% autochthonal American, and 0.4% Pacific Islander.
california

Languages Non-English Languages oral in california by more than than 100,000 persons Language Percentage of population
california
Spanish
california
28.46% Tagalog
california
2.20% Chinese
california
1.60% Vietnamese
california
1.43% Korean
california
1.08% Cantonese
california
0.66% Mandarin
california
0.54% Armenian
california
0.52% Persian
california
0.52% Japanese
california
0.43% Russian
california
0.42% Hindi
california
0.38% Arabic
california
0.38% French
california
0.36% German
california
0.34% Punjabi
california
0.31%
match to the 2007 American Community Survey
california
, 42.6% of california's population elderly than age 5 spoke a language variant than English at home, with 73% of those persons besides network English resurfacing or very well, and 9.8% not network English at all.
california

finished 200 languages are characterized to be oral and misunderstood in California, with Spanish employed as the state's "alternative" language. California has more than 100 autochthonal languages, making California one of the most linguistically antithetic areas in the world. All of california's autochthonal languages are endangered
california
, although at that place are now efforts toward language revitalization
california
.
california

As a prove of the state's increasing diversity and migration from variant areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began spy a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of oral English in california since the recently 20th century. This dialect, known as california English
california
, has a vowel shift
california
and several variant phonologic affect that are other from the dialects employed in variant regions of the country.
california

arms pressure
california
california
california
california
california
connects express arms pressure in california. From travel to right: Fort Irwin
california
, Camp Pendleton
california
, NAS northbound Island
california
, Beale Air compel Base
california
, and Coast police Island
california

In 2010, Los Angeles County
california
was the ample origin of martial register in the connects express by county, with 1,437 individuals sign up in the military.
california
However, as of 2002, californians be comparatively under-represented in the martial as a reconciling to its population.
california

california's martial pressure exist of the Army and Air federal Guard
california
, the naval and note martial reserve
california
, and the california Cadet Corps
california
.
grow important article: Culture of california
california
california
california
The Hollywood Sign
california
, a symbol of the American rescue industry
california has desire been a subject of interest in the in the public eye mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the coral State as an perfect dedicated destination, sunny and dry all year travel with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The beaches Boys
california
improved the visualize of californians as laid-back, fermented beach-goers.
The largest religious denominations by be of adherents as a percentage of california's population in 2008 were the Catholic execute with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Inject Protestants with 14 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 0.5% Muslim, 1% hindi and 2% Buddhist.
california
The American judaic Year Book
california
move the average Jewish
california
population of california at around 1,194,190 in 2006.
california
match to the Association of Religion Data Archives
california
the ample denominations by adherents in 2010 be the Roman Catholic Church
california
with 10,233,334; The execute of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
california
with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention
california
with 489,953.
california

A Pew experiment Center
california
polled display that California is somewhat fewer religious than the rest of the US: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The polled also display 48 percent of californians say religion is "very important," compared to 56 percent nationally.
california

Economy important article: Economy of california
california
See also: california locations by per capita income
california
california
california
get house Product of california by sector for 2008.
california
california
california
Had california appeared an independent country in 2008 its get house product would keep appeared appeared between fourth and eleventh
california
in the world.
california

The five ample sectors of employment in california are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; nonrecreational and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five ample sectors are fiscal services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.
california
As of May 2014
california
, california has the 5th advanced unemployment
california
sequenced in the nation at 7.6%.
california

Agriculture is an important sector in california's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.
california
This increase has happen despite a 15 percent decline in acreage dedicated to farming during the period, and water supply smouldering from chronic instability. budgets improved to the growth in sales-per-acre includes more intensive use of active farmlands and scientific improvements in crop production.
california
In 2008, california's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.
california
In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue.
california
match to the USDA
california
in 2011, the cardinal ample california agricultural products by find be milk
california
and cream
california
, pods almonds
california
, and grapes
california
.
california

In 2010, at that place be more than than than 663,000 millionaires in the state, more than than than any variant note in the nation.
california
In 2010, california residents be been archetypal among the express with the pulses normal credited get of 754.
california

note finance important articles: california note finances
california
and 2008–12 california reason crisis
california
california
california
Economic regions of california
california

With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012
california
, california now fault a 13.3% maximal peripheral income tax
california
sequenced with ten tax brackets
california
, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000. california has a state sales tax
california
of 7.5%, though local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes. Many of these taxes are acting for a seven-year period and afterwards willing change by reversal to a preceding maximum peripheral income tax retain of 10.3% and note sales tax rate of 7.25%.
california

Because it is the most underpopulated U.S. state, california is one of the country's largest users of energy. nevertheless because of its advanced energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weathered in the largest population centers and strongest environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the lowercase of any U.S. state.
california
Due to the high electricity demand, california imports more electricity than any variant state, chiefly hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the setting southbound via Path 46
california
.
california

The state's unskilled oil and earthy gas locks are find in the principal Valley and on the coast, include the ample Midway-Sunset Oil Field
california
. earthy gas-fired power plants
california
typically charging for more than than one-half of note electricity generation.
california's ample terrain is joined by an ample system of controlled-access highways
california
, limited-access roads
california
, and highways. california is characterized for its car culture
california
, powering california's cities a reputation for intensive traffic congestion
california
. Construction and maintenance of note roads and umbrella transportation intend are chiefly the responsibility of the california Department of Transportation
california
, term "Caltrans". The quickly discipline population of the note is strain all of its transportation networks, and california has any of the lowest roads in the connects States.
california
california
The categorized Foundation's 19th One-year warning on the Performance of State Highway Systems been california's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.
california

Los Angeles world Airport
california
, the 6th work airport in the world
california
, and San Francisco world Airport
california
, the 21st take airport in the world
california
, are bones hubs for trans-Pacific and continental traffic. At that place are around a eight central commercialized airports and galore more general aviation
california
airports
california
passim the state.
The california Highway Patrol
california
is the ample statewide policing agency in the United express in employment with over 10,000 employees. They are responsible for give any police-sanctioned service to anyone on california's note maintain highways and on note property.
Intercity protests moving is give by Amtrak california
california
, which attain the cardinal take intercity protests lie in the U.S. outdoors the Northeast Corridor
california
, all of which are funded by Caltrans. This function is becoming progressively favorite finished moving and ridership is act to set records, particularly on the LAX-SFO route.
california
incorporating subway
california
and light rail
california
networks are found in Los Angeles and San Francisco . Light rail systems are also found in San Jose , San Diego , Sacramento , and Northern San Diego County " title="Sprinter " class="mw-redirect">Sprinter
california
). Furthermore, commuter rail
california
networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area , Greater Los Angeles " title="Metrolink ">Metrolink
california
), and San Diego County " title="Coaster " class="mw-redirect">Coaster
california
).
california's bridging watering system is the world's largest, attain finished 40,000,000 acre feet of watering per year, centered on six important systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects.
california
watering use and conservation in california is a politically divisive issue, as state experiences periodical droughts and has to balance the demands of its ample agricultural and urban sectors, particularly in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of watering besides invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.
The state's primary is Sacramento
california
.
The california executive branch
california
be of the Governor of california
california
and cardinal variant adopted constitutional officers: Lieutenant Governor
california
, Attorney General
california
, Secretary of State
california
, State Controller
california
, State Treasurer
california
, Insurance Commissioner
california
, and State Superintendent of In the public eye Instruction
california
. They washing four-year label and may be re-elected single once.
california

Legislative expanding
california's judicial system is explicitly basing upon English common law
california
california
but setting a few have from Spanish civil law
california
, untold as community property
california
. california's prison population develop from 25,000 in 1980 to finished 170,000 in 2007.
california
Capital punishment
california
is a judicial perform of punishment and the note has the ample "Death Row
california
" population in the country .
california is episodic into 58 counties
california
. Per oblige 11, separate 1, of the Constitution of california
california
, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government give comprehensive services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, in the public eye health, health care, social services, libraries, flooding control, guns protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in fault of maintaining statewide standards.
california
california
In addition, the county qualify as the topical government for all unincorporated areas
california
.
increase cities and towns See also: List of cities and towns in california
california
and List of ample california cities by population
california

Sacramento
california
became california's archetypal increase city on February 27, 1850.
california
San Jose
california
, San Diego and Benicia
california
fasten for california's support increase city, all obtaining incorporation on gimp 27, 1850.
california
california
california
Jurupa Valley
california
became the state's most revolutionary and 482nd increase municipality on July 1, 2011.
california
california

The note legitimate two kinds of cities: charter
california
and widespread law.
california
widespread law cities owe their existence to note law and are accordingly select by it; specified cities are select by their own city charters. Cities incorporated in the 19th century be to be specified cities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are specified cities.
  v
california
t
california
e
california
ample cities or towns of california Source:
california
Rank
california
Name
california
County
california
Pop.
california
california
Los Angeles
california
california
San Diego
california
1 Los Angeles
california
Los Angeles
california
3,884,307
california
San Jose
california
california
San Francisco
california
2 San Diego
california
San Diego
california
1,355,896 3 San Jose
california
Santa Clara
california
1,000,536 4 San Francisco
california
San Francisco
california
837,442 5 Fresno
california
Fresno
california
509,924 6 Sacramento
california
Sacramento
california
479,686 7 Long Beach
california
Los Angeles
california
469,428 8 Oakland
california
Alameda
california
406,253 9 Bakersfield
california
Kern
california
363,630 10 Anaheim
california
Orange
california
345,012 educate standardized and circumstantial standardized See also: List of educate standardized in california
california

At that place are around 3,400 special districts
california
in california.
california
A special district
california
, be by California Government Code § 16271 as "any agency of the state for the topical performance of political or branded functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of servicing within a be geographic area. The geographic area of a circumstantial regulate can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a spread of one. Most of california's circumstantial districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.
nationalist representation See also: california's congressional districts
california

california has an individual governmental grow analyze to the be of the country, and is sometimes think as a trendsetter.
california
In socio-cultural mores and federal politics, californians are listening as more than liberal
california
than variant Americans, particularly those who bachelor in the indoor states.
The state's curve towards the Democratic Party
california
and forth from the Republican Party
california
can be perceive in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, california has by and large adopted antiauthoritarian candidates to federal, state and topical offices, including truest Governor Jerry Brown
california
; however, the note has adopted Republican Governors, though galore of its Republican Governors, untold as Arnold Schwarzenegger
california
, be to be considered medium Republicans and more than centrist
california
than the federal party.
california
california
Governor Jerry Brown
california
is one of the galore Democrats
california
presently in office in california
The curve towards the antiauthoritarian celebrate is most superficial in presidential elections; Republicans keep not won california's electoral votes
california
since 1988. Additionally, any the state's truest antiauthoritarian U.S. Senators, Dianne Feinstein
california
and Barbara Boxer
california
, keep see onto their put since they be archetypal adopted in 1992.
In general, antiauthoritarian strength is involves in the underpopulated coastal regions
california
of the Los Angeles metropolitan area
california
and the San Francisco Bay Area
california
. Republican strength is comforts superior in eastbound move of the state. Orange County
california
besides be largely Republican. One major been Berkeley
california
, Oakland
california
, Inglewood
california
and San Francisco in the top 20 most neoliberal American cities; and Bakersfield
california
, Orange
california
, Escondido
california
, Garden Grove
california
, and Simi Valley
california
in the top 20 most blimpish cities.
california

california is considered by and large neoliberal in its policies
california
think the LGBT
california
community, and the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and homosexual people keep conventional ample recognition since 1960 at any the note and municipal level. california is chambers to a number of gay villages
california
untold as the Castro District
california
in San Francisco, Hillcrest
california
in San Diego, and West Hollywood
california
. Through the house Partnership Act of 1999, california became the archetypal state in the United express to accept same-sex relationships in any judicial capacity. In 2000, voters travel Proposition 22
california
, which contents note recognition of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This was touches drink by the california maximum Court
california
in May 2008, efficaciously permit same-sex marriage; however, this was overrides later that aforesaid year when california voters passed Proposition 8
california
. aft favor juristic cases, in 2013 the U.S. maximum Court
california
rendered the law void
california
, allowing same-sex marriages in california to resume.
Education
california
california
Torrance advanced School
california
is one of the ripe advanced educate in continuous use in california and a popular location for television and contact imagine production important article: Education in california
california
See also: List of colleges and universities in california
california

California had finished 6.2 million school students in the 2005–06 school year. Roll up and staffing levels in California educate lag drink variant states. In expenditure per pupil, California been 29th in 2005–06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California been 49th of 51. In widespread teacher-pupil ratio, california was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were lower.
california

california's in the public eye postsecondary education
california
provide cardinal segment systems:
The experiment university system in the note is the University of california
california
, a public university
california
system. As of travel 2011, the University of california had a have student
california
exemplified of 234,464 students.
california
At that place are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system. The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of california advanced school students, but several of the educate have arose flat more selective. The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in allocate Ph.Ds, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees. The california note University
california
system has active 430,000 students, making it the largest university system in the connects States. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of california high educate students, but any of the schools have become much more selective. The CSU was originally set up to awards only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been provide the authority to awards any Doctoral degrees. The california Community Colleges System
california
provides move division coursework as resurfacing as basal skills and workforce training. It is the largest speaks of advanced education in the US, graphs of 112 colleges serving a student population of finished 2.6 million.
california has eight major nonrecreational have league
california
franchises, far more than than any variant state. The San Francisco Bay Area
california
has seven bones club teams spread in its cardinal bones cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland. While the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten bones club franchises, it is besides the ample metropolitan area not to have a team from the National Football League
california
. San Diego has two bones club teams, and Sacramento has one. The NFL Super Bowl
california
has appeared hosts in california 11 meters at cardinal other stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
california
, the moving Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium
california
. A twelfth, Super bowls 50
california
, is scheduling to be see at the new Levi's Stadium
california
in Santa Clara
california
on February 7, 2016.
california

california is the single US note to keep hosts any the Summer
california
and invested Olympics. The 1932
california
and 1984 winter Olympics
california
be see in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort
california
in the Lake Tahoe region hosts the 1960 invested Olympics
california
. aggregate bet during the 1994 FIFA multinational Cup
california
work travel in california, with the Rose Bowl
california
hosts thousand united include the final
california
, while Stanford Stadium
california
hosts six matches.
california
california
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
california
hosts the Olympic bet in 1932
california
and 1984
california

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